Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The generation gap is the different generations have different views of the same thing with different ideal. Different environments to create different people and different circumstances produce different thoughts. The emergence of the generation gap in a family is the responsibility of parents and children,parents often complain that children now too do not respect their parents; the children also complain that their parents do not understand children, making the original and the happy family have strife.It contrary to the point of view for the parents, children have their new insights and cause different thinking ideas, behaviors, habits according to their parents. Parents and children have different psychological characteristics. Children have ideals and aspirations, vision of a better future, thinking broad, have flexible response, creative spirit, fast to accept new things, strong ability of adapting to the new environment and prefer independent thinking.There has strong sense o f innovation, ingenuity, courage to break the stereotypes. However, the lack of social experiences their ideas easily extreme and deal with the problem is not calm. Parents were already undergoing many things, mature wisdom, character, maturity, and in interpersonal communication has a lot of experience. Parents see deep and thorough problem, but sometimes because of traditional attitudes, bondage of feudal ideology, ideological and stubborn, conservative, and so on.Besides that,the authoritative ideological heavier of some parents, assertive, requires children to unconditionally obey, so the children will be dissatisfied. For example, there is abundant energy of the younger generation, and competition, innovation, independent, unwilling to be controlled by others, giving a Ã¢â¬Å"bold and unconstrainedÃ¢â¬ impression. In this regard, the older parents are not understood; feel that children had too much wind. Such deviation is bound on the understanding of direct impact to the at titudes and behavior of both sides, and both sides of the generation gap.If you both can do a role change, play the role of your opponent, to experience each others emotions, it's good to change their views, to facilitate exchanges. In this society, the generation gap is a universal phenomenon, it hinders the thoughts, feelings and daily exchanges between parents and children and communication. If the children cannot accept the arrangement of the parents, the children also must be respect their parents, trying to communicate with them, talk with them to explain their ideas like this, sometimes parents and children are also able to reach a consensus. Generation Gap Leo Tolstoy said: Ã¢â¬Å"All families are happy in the similar way and unhappy in its own wayÃ¢â¬ . And happiness or unhappiness of any family mostly depends on relations in it. So many families so many family relations. Each family establishes its own relations in its own way. It has its own traditions and customs and its own unwritten constitution including rights and duties of every member of the family. They are also different in different families. So the problem of misunderstanding becomes urgent. Some people can it generation gap.And both sides (parents and children) should be patient and tactful and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the only way to settle down all the problems and stay friends. Youth is a very important period in the life of man. This is the time when a person discovers the world and tries to determine the place in the universe. Young people face lots of problems which are very important for them and do not differ much from those that once their parents had to deal with. At the same time every generation is unique. It differs from the one that preceded it in its experience, ideals and a system of values.The adults always say that the young are not what they were. These words are repeated from generation to generation. To some extent they are true, because every new generation grows up quicker, enjoys more freedom. It is better educated and benefits from the results of the technological progress of the time. Young people of today do not directly accept the standards of their parents who believe that they are right because they are older. The adults don't want their values to be questioned. The young on the other hand can not accept the values of their Ã¢â¬Å"fathersÃ¢â¬ .All these differences generate a generation gap when the young and adult do not understand one another. As a rule the adults, dissatisfied with their own lives, teach the young how to live. Unfortunately, the adults apply old standards to the new way of life. They can not leave behind the ir Ã¢â¬Å"good old daysÃ¢â¬ . This burden is very heavy. They think that the world is going down hill. They gloomily look ahead unable to understand the optimism of their children who want to pave their own way in life. The majority of the young people do not want to live in the past.They have their own ideals. They want to make their own mistakes rather than to listen to the warnings of the adults and repeat the mistakes of the older generation. They want to overcome their own difficulties without looking back. However, the life of the young is frequently determined by the adults. I think that parents will never understand their children. And children, in their turn, shock their parents with their dress, language, behaviour. Traditionally, young people were looking at their elders for guidance. Today the situation is different.Sometimes the young people share information and experience with their parents. I think that it is not bad, especially when the adults really try to unders tand what is going on in the lives of their children. Moreover, young people grow up so quickly that they almost do not have time to enjoy their childhood. So, as you see, it is very difficult to be young nowadays, as it always was. But you only can be young once, and some wonderful things can happen only when youÃ¢â¬â¢re young. So, it is be to enjoy youth while it lasts. Generation Gap The generation gap is the different generations have different views of the same thing with different ideal. Different environments to create different people and different circumstances produce different thoughts. The emergence of the generation gap in a family is the responsibility of parents and children,parents often complain that children now too do not respect their parents; the children also complain that their parents do not understand children, making the original and the happy family have strife.It contrary to the point of view for the parents, children have their new insights and cause different thinking ideas, behaviors, habits according to their parents. Parents and children have different psychological characteristics. Children have ideals and aspirations, vision of a better future, thinking broad, have flexible response, creative spirit, fast to accept new things, strong ability of adapting to the new environment and prefer independent thinking.There has strong sense o f innovation, ingenuity, courage to break the stereotypes. However, the lack of social experiences their ideas easily extreme and deal with the problem is not calm. Parents were already undergoing many things, mature wisdom, character, maturity, and in interpersonal communication has a lot of experience. Parents see deep and thorough problem, but sometimes because of traditional attitudes, bondage of feudal ideology, ideological and stubborn, conservative, and so on.Besides that,the authoritative ideological heavier of some parents, assertive, requires children to unconditionally obey, so the children will be dissatisfied. For example, there is abundant energy of the younger generation, and competition, innovation, independent, unwilling to be controlled by others, giving a Ã¢â¬Å"bold and unconstrainedÃ¢â¬ impression. In this regard, the older parents are not understood; feel that children had too much wind. Such deviation is bound on the understanding of direct impact to the at titudes and behavior of both sides, and both sides of the generation gap.If you both can do a role change, play the role of your opponent, to experience each others emotions, it's good to change their views, to facilitate exchanges. In this society, the generation gap is a universal phenomenon, it hinders the thoughts, feelings and daily exchanges between parents and children and communication. If the children cannot accept the arrangement of the parents, the children also must be respect their parents, trying to communicate with them, talk with them to explain their ideas like this, sometimes parents and children are also able to reach a consensus.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The importance of health care organizations, in Mike MoranÃ¢â¬â¢s hands is nothing less than to deliver quality care. According to Mike, health care organizations require substantial resources to perform day-to-day operations, and achieve long-term, strategic goals. As the manager of Iowa Park and Recreational Department, Mike is responsible for using his or her power selectively. He believes that understanding the risks, costs, and benefits of a health care organization is the key for managers to use his or her power effectively. The organization I have chosen to interview, Iowa Park and Recreational Department, is a selectively large organization that contains forty-seven full-time employees and five-hundred temporary employees. The service area is approximately five square miles and serves around 100,000 citizens of the Iowa City, Coralville area. Mike is the director and head of the Park and Recreational department. Under supervision, with some latitude for independent action or decision, Mike is responsible for programs of recreational activities. Mike is responsible for six divisions: parks, recreation, forest trees, central business districts, government building and cemetery. To attain this title, Mike achieved is BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree and then went on to achieve his MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree from Northern Colorado. Some of the physical activities performed by Recreational Directors and environmental conditions experienced are: demonstrating, teaching, leading and officiating at recreational activities such as group teams, games, dances, and working outdoors. Mike is required to work evenings, nights, Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. Although his education possibly landed Mike the job, he truly believes that his love for the community landed him to the advancement of director. However, Mike admits challenges arise at this position. According to him, the most frustrating challenge is maintain within his budget. Mike makes this easier by introducing fundraising strategies to the community. He also admits that working with people can sometimes challenge his role. Public relations are his downfall and require the most attention for improvement. Mike is responsible for the recreation organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s daily operation. He primarily organizes and directs participants, schedule the use of facilities, keep records of equipment use, and ensure that recreation facilities and equipment are used properly. In addition, they may lead classes and provide instruction in a recreational activity. As a supervisor, Mike oversees recreation leaders and plan, organize, and manage recreational activities to meet the needs of a variety of populations. He also directs special activities and events or oversees a major activity, such as aquatics, gymnastics, or one or more performing arts. Mike develops and manages comprehensive recreation programs in parks, playgrounds, and other settings. He serves as a technical advisor or State and local recreation and park commissions and is responsible for recreation and park budgets. Iowa Park and Recreational Division provides a variety of leisure time recreational services, including organized activities to all populations. The professional staff of the Recreation Division provides purposeful recreation programming by utilizing departmental and other community facilities. This division strives to cooperate with all agencies and to coordinate activities with other recreational organizations in order to expand leisure time opportunities for the community. The recreational department strives to enhance the quality of life for the residents of Iowa City and surrounding area by providing cost effective quality programs and services, facilities, parks, open spaces, and information as an essential link in creating a dynamic, vital community. Recreational opportunities and leisure-time pursuits are plentiful for the residents in the area. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to also maintain your fiscal responsibilities. While interviewing Mike, he discussed how he is responsible for a seven point two million dollar budget and also a C. I. P budget between five and fifteen million every year. To be involved in these types of important responsibilities your training responsibilities need to be maintained to keep certification. To maintain it you need to get your C. E. U (continuing education unit) credit. Overall employment of recreation workers is projected to increase by 15 percent between 2012 and 2022, which is faster than the average for all occupations. Although people will spend more time and money on recreation, budget restrictions in State and local government will limit the number of jobs added. Civic and social organizations and fitness and sports centers will also contribute to growth. Growth will be driven by the growing numbers of young and older Americans. The large numbers of births in recent years likely will increase the demand for recreation services for children, and retiring baby boomers are expected to have more leisure time, higher disposable incomes, and more concern for health and fitness than previous generations had. The latter factors should lead to an increasing demand for recreation services for baby boomers. Applicants for part-time, seasonal, and temporary recreation jobs should have good opportunities, but competition will remain keen for career positions because the recreation field attracts many applicants and because the number of career positions is limited compared with the number of lower level seasonal jobs. Opportunities for staff positions should be best for people with formal training and experience in part-time or seasonal recreation jobs. Volunteer experience, part-time work during school, and a summer job are viewed favorably. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. Job openings will stem from growth and the need to replace the large numbers of workers who leave the occupation each year. The educational needs for people entering into this occupational field vary widely depending on the job and level of responsibility. For activity specialists, it is more important to have experience and demonstrated competence in a particular activity than to have a degree. Camp counselors often are older teenagers or young adults who have experienced camping as a child and enjoy the camping experience. A degree is less important than the counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s maturity level, ability to work well with children and teens, and ability to make sure that they stay safe. People planning careers in recreation should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Excellent health and physical fitness often are required, due to the physical nature of some jobs. Time management and the ability to manage others also are important. Recreation workers start their careers working with people. As they gain experience, they may get promoted to positions with greater responsibilities. Recreation workers with experience and managerial skills may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Eventually, they may become the director of a recreation department. When Mike was asked if he could make any changes, he was very concerned with the community and he would like to make them more aware of the activities the Park and Recreational Organization offers. He also wishes he could get more people involved in the job skill and allow people more opportunities for a career in recreation. DONÃ¢â¬â¢T FORGET THE CONCLUSION!
Discernment is defined to be the act or process of exhibiting keen insight and good judgment. Interestingly, the bible is rife with accounts and teachings how important discernment is to the people of God. Apostles, for example, were witnesses how Holy Spirit gave them the gift of discernment in the New Testament. The action of the apostles of continuing what Jesus told them to do was discernment in itself; discernment in action, that is. Ã¢â¬Å"Discernment can be defined to be the calling on the Holy Spirit to lead or give direction on a matter,Ã¢â¬ says Spirithome.com.Moreover, Jesus Christ himself was a discernment personified. In Luke 11:9 he says to His people, Ã¢â¬Å"So I say t you: Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you. Ã¢â¬ The words alone are an encouragement that people always have the good judgment of everything, and that in their judgment blessings await. Author Pierre Wolff in his book The Art of Choosing Well talks about this very thing Ã¢â¬â discernment. Wolff presents the ways of choosing and deciding wisely rooted in the different works of St.Ignatius of Loyola. Seeking God, St. Ignatius believed, is not meant to wait for visions, but had to seek Him in an intelligent and humble way and then by His grace and time, everything will be given and answered. Moreover, Wolff never fails to be practical and at the same time simple. He stresses different basic principles applicable to contemporary people, such as taking adequate time to listen to both your heart and mind, and clarify your most innermost held values.Although his teachings rooted in the Catholic-based faith, this, however, can be applicable to people of different faith (or lack thereof). Discernment or decision-making, to begin with, is a universal trait necessary for us as we deal our life. There are so many things to put to consider when discerning about something. In 1 Corinthians 13: 1-3, discernment is characterized to be governed by love, for it is not, itÃ¢â¬â¢s worthless. 1 Corinthians 12-3 is bolder in its emphasis of Christ, discernment Ã¢â¬Å"centers us onto Jesus the Christ and Lord, and His good news.Ã¢â¬ But Ephesians 4:11-12 is more general and more empowering; discernment it says Ã¢â¬Å"builds up the church and its members, giving it power, wisdom, character, boldness, and unity. Other people sometimes mixed up their decisions with their own veiled interests. Wolff summarizes some of St. Ignatius works to know if we are truly discerning the right things thus: We must desire to do GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will, open to God at the moment of discerning, know what God is like, and we must be a person who prays.Furthermore, there are three ways of making a choice: Revelation (or God is speaking to you), Reasoning (Weighing the pros and cons of our choices and putting yourself on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes to be able to know better the right thing), Discernment (or the time where Ã¢â¬Å"much light an d understanding are derived through experience,Ã¢â¬ says Ignatius. ) True enough, discernment is more than just a skill and process. It is a gift from God, from the Holy SpiritÃ¢â¬ ¦ and this can be acquired and developed through asking God and continuing it through training and experience.Growing in discernment is a challenge for everyone. And the price is a peace of mind. To grow in discernment requires everyone to work on it like prayer; to know deeply whatÃ¢â¬â¢s inside our thoughts Ã¢â¬â if itÃ¢â¬â¢s GodÃ¢â¬â¢s or if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not. One way of nurturing it is through Daily Consciousness Examen, which is recommended by the Church. This basically can be done through asking the Holy Spirit to guide you always, to look back on your day and recognize the blessings God has given you, asking God to teach you, and asking yourself if youÃ¢â¬â¢re acting what the Lord told you to do.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Drug Trafficing - Essay Example es a Violent Street Gang/Drug Enterprise as a criminal enterprise having an organizational structure, acting as a continuing criminal conspiracy, which employs violence and any other criminal activity to sustain the enterprise (Wiley, 1997). There are at least 21,500 gangs and more than 731,000 active gang members in the United States alone. These gangs are known to conduct criminal activity in all states and U.S. territories. Earlier, it was believed that the problem of gangs and drug trafficking was mainly concentrated in major urban areas, however recent data show that gangs also are proliferating in rural and suburban areas. Increasing law enforcement pressure in urban areas of the country forced the gang members to flee or seek more lucrative drug markets is one of the reasons. This proliferation in non-urban areas increasingly is accompanied by violence and is threatening society in general (NDIC, 2005). Questions such as why has youth gang involvement in drug trafficking increased in the past decade has still not being answered completely. The popular image of youth gangs ties them directly to drugs and violent crime (Klein, 1995). Research conducted in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s has documented extensive youth and adult gang member involvement in drug use and generally higher levels of use compared with non-gang members. According to Fagan (19Ã¢â¬â54) there are basically two reasons: (1) the dramatic expansion of cocaine markets in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, accompanied by sharp price reductions, and (2) socioeconomic changes in American society that disrupted traditional social controls (Curry and Spergel, 381Ã¢â¬â405). Drug use, drug trafficking, and violence overlap considerably in gangs (Howell and Decker, in press). Moreover, gang involvement appears to increase individual involvement in drug use, drug trafficking, gun carrying, and violence and, perhaps, to prolong involvement in drug sales (Youth Gangs and Violence, 1998). There is no doubt that with the increase
Sunday, July 28, 2019
The population of Kenya - Research Paper Example For instance, 75 % of Kenyans depend on agriculture for income and food and contributes approximately 26 % of the country's Gross Domestic Product. In addition, the agricultural activities contribute about 60 % of the country's foreign exchange earnings. However, only a third of the county's total land is agricultural products and is majorly found in the lake region, coastal plains, and Kenyan highlands. On the other hand, the two-thirds of the land is characterized by arid and semi-arid climate hence low, poorly distributed, and unreliable rainfall. Agriculturally, the area is used for pastoral farming. In Kenya, livestock contributes approximately 26 percent of the total agricultural production. Population Change Kenya has experienced a drastic population change in the past 20 years. In 1995, the crude birth rate of the country was approximated to be 36 births per 1000 people per year and grew to 40 births per year in 2005. The natural increase is the difference between the populat ionÃ¢â¬â¢s crude birth rate and the crude death rate. In Kenya, the natural increase in 1995 is approximated to be approximately 20 % while in 2005; the natural increase was estimated to be 29 %. Kenya had a net migration rate of -1 per 1000 people in 1995 while in 2005; the net migration has been at 0. On the other hand, the net number of migrants in Kenya in 1995 was -24000 people and 11000 people in 2005. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s total fertility rate in 1995 was 4.8 births per woman and 5.0 births per woman in 2005.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Charles Manson Law Case Study - Essay Example From the time he was released from prison in 1967, Mason engages in a series of criminal activities from murder, torture and rape to the leading of a criminal sect referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The FamilyÃ¢â¬ . Charles Manson was arrested in 1969 and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1972. Many sociologists and psychologists have argued that the reasons for MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal activity are linked to his juvenile delinquency and his upbringing (Koopmans 1-3). Discussion a) There are several theories postulated by researchers on the reasons for juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency can be attributed to Albert BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s social learning theory which postulates that human learning is a function of cognitive, behavioral and environmental factors. Merton proposed that society usually makes people aspire to better their lives. When there is a blockage of avenues to attain the upward mobility, people resort to crime. AgnewÃ¢â¬â¢s general strain theory is the best in explaining ju venile delinquency. According to Agnew, juveniles resort to delinquency as a result of the experience of horrible events or circumstances such as violence especially in the home. Agnew postulates that juveniles turn into delinquents as a result of negative emotional reactions arising from aversive situations from which they find it difficult to escape. The inability of escape leads to frustration and may be exhibited through anger based delinquency. The action of Charles Manson who was born in an environment in which he faced rejection from his mother was therefore a fertile ground for the development of aversive behavior (Koopmans 34-40). The general strain theory, the hostility, emotional atmosphere both in the home and at school, and the inadequacies in the parent child relationships result to more harm to the child than physical injury. In order to prevent delinquency, there needs to be increased efforts at enhancing the quality and concord within the family unit. Programs of pr evention that base on the general strain theory are usually designed to make family relations stronger through the improvement of communal conditions which play an essential role in enhancing healthy family living (Koopmans 88-93). Charles MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s world was such that he had no father and hence his family system was incomplete. Charles Manson was rejected by his mother who neglected him and thus this aversive behavior at home forced him to react in anger through criminal acts. b) While the placement of children in an institution is not desirable in some instances this has to happen. Children are placed in juvenile reform homes when their behavior is considered to have overreached the norms of society. Children are also placed in juvenile reform homes when they lack a family unit that is deemed capable of reforming them so that they can fit in society. For a child to be placed in a juvenile delinquent home there has to be proof of non reformation after punishment is meted out. A good scenario is the case of Charles Manson whose mother is an alcoholic and he has no father. Charles Manson starts to engage in crime art a very early age and it is clear that his mother has no control over him or she does not care. Manson gets punished for criminal activity several times which results into his commitment to a juvenile reform home. He is committed to a juvenile ref
Friday, July 26, 2019
International Migration Citizenship - Essay Example For instance, Inflow of Migrants British is one of the variables that will be included in the analysis. Since we are interested in a possible existing relationship between the Inflow and the Outflow of Migrants across Citizenship given a specific year we will employ the correlation analysis and the trend analysis to reach our objective. It is worth mentioning here that the data that was extracted represents the years 1971 through 2001. The correlation analysis was created in SPSS versus the other tables that present the data in Excel. What we observe is the following: for all countries there is a strong positive correlation between the inflow and outflow of migrants. This denotes that the more migrants enter the country the more migrants exit the country. In the same context, but this time for the British Citizens, we notice that there is a moderate negative correlation between the inflow and the outflow of migrants; this suggests that the more migrants enter the UK the less migrants leave the UK. Regarding the Non-British citizens, we state that there is a very low negative correlation which does not impact either the inflow or outflow of the country considerably. We continue the correlation analysis for the inflow and outflow of the Commonwealth for the ALL, Old and New Variables; what we observe is that the Person correlation had very high positive values from .85 and above showing the number of migrants who enter the country is directly proportional with the number of migrants who decide to leave the Commonwealth. The same things goes for the Other Foreign migrants whose correlation is highly positive showing that the number of foreign migrants that enter are proportionate to the number of foreign migrants who leave the country. From the correlation analysis that we have done so far it is obvious that there exist a strong relationship between the inflow and the outflow of migrants for most of the variables except for the Non-British. We notice that there are
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Assignment Example The core issue of a learning contract is to provide a guiding strategy for personal learning. What is needed in a learning contract is a clear declaration of the rationale of the contract. This may be provided as an aim, a predicament or a matter. The purpose must be suitable to the course or subject and be adequately challenging to merit inclusion in a bachelor level program (Anderson, Baud & Sampson 1998). Purpose of learning contracts can be indicated as transforming responsibility for the education process from the educator to the learner to enable students learn better with a clear focus. It is also to offer a motivation by insuring accomplishment under known conditions. Learning contract is a means for a student to have a prepared learning model to pursue. This structure must be specifically designed for individual studentÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. It offers information and objectives the student has set for their individual
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Child Abuse - Case Study Example Also, please cite your references. The paper needs to be approximately 3 pages long. Child abuse is considered to be the mistreatment, abuse and violence towards children by a parent, close relative or guardian, which may have detrimental effects on the child's physical, emotional and psychological state(Bartholet, 2000). This paper will analyze the case study of a ten year old boy called Peter, who became the victim of child abuse. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the causes and factors associated with child abuse and neglect and its consequences in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Research suggests that physical abuse is considered to be the abuse which involves intentional and purposeful acts of aggression and violent behavior that can damage and harm the child. Research also suggests the physical abuse takes place when adults are in the state of anger and are unable to control it. Therefore, they slap, punch, strike at the child (Briere & Bulkley, 2000). It is sad that children like Peter often become the target of physical violence. From research it is evident that unemployment, poverty, absence of father from the family, drug addiction are considered to be one of the main factors, which lead to physical child abuse. 4. Parental Causes of Child Abuse Child abuse is often associated with parents. Following are the parental causes that lead to child abuse: 1. Parents had themselves been victims of physical assault as children. There is a complete cycle of violence. Parents, who had been the victims, frequently assault and beat their children. 2. Research suggests that frequently unwanted pregnancy also leads to child abuse. A sick or disabled child also becomes the target of physical assault at the hands of the parent. 3. Parents often do not support their children, when they face problems in their academics or social life. Frequently, children are slapped and beaten as part of their disciplined training 4. Indistinct and unclear limitations, where the boundary and limitations between the child and the parent are not defined. In such cases, both roles are undefined and hence, physical violence takes place (Bartholet, 2000). 5. Physical assault also takes places, when the parent suffers from pyshcological disorder. In order to express his or her aggression, the parent resort to violence and beats his or her child in an attempt to calm down. 6. Research suggests that in some culture, children are awarded corporal punishments in order to discipline them Ecological
Survey - Essay Example A security survey is an examination and analysis of a business along with assessing the existing security and its importance and deficiencies. A Security survey is a systematic approach of mapping and testing existing security programs and initiatives in a critical manner. Usually, security programs are designed for stakeholders that include employees, customers, government and shareholders. It includes general security and technological security that plays an important role in defining the business approach of an organization. Thus, it is important to know the existing issues and problems pertaining to the security. People concerned with the security programs should be addressed and accordingly issues should be discussed with them to understand the need and importance of conducting the survey. Survey can be conducted through questionnaires or personal interaction in order to assess and analyze the loopholes and benefits of security system. All responses should be recorded in an ethical and transparent manner. It is important to design questionnaires keeping the security objective in mind along with addressing wide arrays of issues and problems pertaining to security. Usually, security surveys are conducted by the security officer but can also be conducted by the outside party in order to have a third party opinion over the existing security systems. The questions should be precise and open ended in nature and should compel respondents to share their views. This would further help in analyzing the garnered opinions and views. It needs to be understood that results of the survey are reported to the management in an informative and logical manner. It should include an introduction of the survey, needs and objectives along with stating the purpose of conducting the survey. A thorough analysis of risks and returns should be included along with mentioning wide arrays of strengths and
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
CONFLICT RESOLUTION - Term Paper Example Where people stay, conflicts are bound to take place. As human beings, it is vital to find ways of solving conflicts so as to live in harmony. The art and ability to accommodate one another is equally important therefore it is wise to take it as a burden to resolve conflict in an amicable way without resorting to war. From past experience and historical perspective, diplomacy reigns where war has always failed. It is therefore important to analyze conflict from a personal experience with regard to what takes place in the work place. It is also very important to figure out what would be the dangers of letting anger take control of people in the work or social places and the repercussions it might have on their career (Hodgson, 2000). Conflicts in work places are as common as they are in other social places. Having that background knowledge it is therefore important to find ways of handling situations of conflict that may arise in our surrounding. It is also important to realize that m any a times conflicts normally arise as a result of conflicting concerns of individuals, who may want to suit their own interest at the expense of others. Conflicts in work places arise because of a number of reasons. If such issues are not addressed in time, they cause a threat to the organization. An example of what might cause conflict is the feeling that some workers are given special treatment than others. Yet some workers may also engage in conflict because they are sidelined. This occurs when a single worker or a group of workers find it difficult to associate with fellow workers because of their background, their weakness or even their manner of handling situations. For example in my case, I have experienced a scenario at work place when fellow workers ganged up against me. Reason being, I had a weakness in the manner in which I handled lazy people. Instead of being rational, I acted ruthlessly towards them. As a result, I was sidelined by my workmates. The situation got wor se. I was hated by everyone in the organization. My sight could not be condoned by anyone; this deteriorated my performance. I was almost giving up my job when finally the manager came to our intervention. The situation has improved since I now get along with everyone. My situation may not be different from what might be going on in other places of work. Appreciating others is vital since no achievement in the work place can be realized when workers are not united. We must learn to work with others and accept others, putting it in mind that we cannot have the same qualities. Since conflicts are mandatory in places of work, it is important to look at ways of coming up with solutions to solve such occurrences whenever they happen. There are as many solutions to as many social problems as possible. The only challenge that has always been is that there is no strategy that is near perfect for solving conflicts (Palagi et al., 2004). There are five strategies that can be used in conflict resolution in case of conflict in any working places or anywhere else. The strategies include accommodating, compromising, avoiding, and problem solving. All these strategies are important tools that those who are holding managerial positions in the work places should try to adopt when faced with the challenge of trying to solve disputes in places of work. Conflicts in places of work should be viewed as natural occurrences that arise out of discontentment and frustrations and thus before using
Monday, July 22, 2019
Political Philosophy and Machiavelli Essay Nicolo Machiavelli is a well known philosopher of the Italian Renaissance from the sixteenth century. The return of the Medici family in Florence in 1512 forced Machiavelli out of office, and he wrote The Prince after retiring from the public. The Prince is one of his most famous works, it describes the means by which a new leader may gain and maintain power. His ideas can be applied to new rulers ranging from a new principal to a new president of a new country. While discussing his ideas for new rulers, Machiavelli says Upon this a question arises: whether it be better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? (Machiavelli 98). If a ruler is not able to do both, it is better to be loved than feared. Machiavelli answers his own question through his ideas of what makes a successful ruler. He argues that a prince is much safer being feared than loved. Machiavelli says Ã¢â¬Å" for love is preserved by the link of obligation which, owing to the baseness of men, is broken at every opportunity for their advantage; but fear preserves you by a dread of punishment which never fails. (Machiavelli 99). He says that being loved creates opportunity for being taken advantage of and being feared doesnt fail. Bringing fear to his people with cruelty would make them united and loyal. Most people who are fearful of any authority fear punishment, so they are more inclined to not cross the line of disrespect. Without a doubt, being loved is more desired from the people and has a greater value compared to being feared, even though the perks of being feared can make a leader successful. Since its better to be loved than feared, there are three important characteristics to have to ensure that the new people youre ruling love you; these characteristics are being honest, having respect, and being protective. Honesty is an important characteristic to have because the body of people youre ruling and the way they act is a reflection of yourself. If you make honest and good behavior a key value, your people will do the same. If you dont make honest and good behavior a key value, your people wont trust that you are always doing the right thing and telling the truth. Machiavelli says, Everyone sees what you appear to be, few experience what you really are. (Machiavelli 106). His quote shouldnt be true if youre an honest and truthful leader. Machiavelli says in his quote that a leader does not show his complete self to everyone, that he displays an act of goodness to his people and only reveals what he really is to those who ask for it. Being an honest leader inside and out will only help gain your peoples trust and true love. This quote also ties into the one that reads it is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities I have enumerated, but it is very necessary to appear to have them. (Machiavelli 250). Machiavelli says that a leader must put on a false face to his people and pretend to have qualities that he does not actually have. Its not acceptable to hide yourself from your people because if you say youre going to protect them no matter what and you back out when something bad happens, your people will be disappointed and wont have trust in you. A successful leader who wishes to be loved should be honest to his people for who he really is because it will give him respect. You cant gain respect without giving respect. Respect is one of the most important characteristics to have when being a leader because people always want to be in an environment where they feel valued. A leader isnt going to be successful if their people arent happy and feel as if they arent important. If a leader is genuine with respect, his people will be more willing to give back respect and do as he says. Though, the truth is that it is important to give respect whether they feel the leader deserves it or not. As Machiavelli says, A prince is also respected when he is either a true friend or a downright enemy. (Machiavelli 250). It doesnt matter the relation you have with your leader, whether theyre a true friend or a downright enemy, youre going to respect them just because theyre your leader. Your people may not like what you do, but you will be respected. Its obvious that being respected out of actual love is the better than being being respected out of fear, and that good respect should lead to good confidence within the leader. The feeling of being protected is desired from a lot of people. If youre a new principal, your students and staff want locks on doors and an officer nearby. If youre the new president of a country, your nation wants to know that they have a reliable and strong army fighting for and protecting the country. A successful leader should always be ready for whatever situations may come. Machiavelli says, Ã¢â¬Å"He who does otherwise, either from timidity or evil advice, is always compelled to keep the knife in his hand. (Machiavelli 61). A leader should always be ready for quick action if some situation should arise. Your people will love and admire you if they know youre protecting them and is always cautious for quick problems. It takes great courage and confidence to take full responsibility for your peoples safety and well being. Being honest, having respect, and being protective are characteristics of being a successful but loved leader that have applied to people from before Machiavellis time all the way up to present day. Its easy to spot feared leaders such as Hitler apart from loved leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. Being loved not feared is better to be if you cannot be both because the people youre leading actually like you for who you are and are willing to do what you say, they arent scared into doing it. Martin Luther King Jr. led his people with the same respect they gave him, he was honest and true with his feelings, and he went above and beyond to change the worlds way of how they treated colored people to protect them from getting hurt and discriminated any longer. His people loved and admired him for who he really was, he didnt hide anything. Martin Luther King Jr. was a successful leader because he was loved and possessed honesty, respect and protectiveness.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Implementation of a Crisis Management System JAMES WALKER INTRODUCTION The implementation of a crisis management system is essential to the organization. Once the planning phases are completed, the implementation phases will include the resources and plans to address emergency response, communication, continuity, information technology, incident management and exercise/training. All aspects of the crisis management will be brought together for my organization (ATT). To be prepared for a crisis, the organization needs to have a preparedness plan and the right leadership to respond to the crisis. The SLP will involve detailed framework on ATT regarding assessing crisis management. Additionally, it will include organization and attributes, types of crisis, leadership needed for success, models and theories used, preparedness planning and development phases. ORGANIZATION AND ATTRIBUTES The organizations culture or attributes involves the values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that employees share and utilize daily at work. It is all based on determination how they work to include understanding the business and how to fit into the business. The culture and attributes is the motivation to make decisions, take actions, and excel in performance for the organization. The culture of an organization is created by the consistent planning and action. If the organization and the people in it understand it, they will promote it or radiate it outward to make the organization successful. (ATT, 2017 and 2016) ATT has a legacy of giving the first responder and public safety organizations the support needed to handle a crisis. The attributes they possess are being trusted, experienced technicians and leaders, dedicated to the mission, and constant investing. ATT allocates many mission-critical abilities to the Federal, State, and Local governments. (ATT, 2017 and 2016) However, the organization must have a resilient and secure network that is joined with innovation leadership (ATT Labs and ATT Foundry). The within ATT represents the integration of a one ability plus another ability. Additionally, it represents the mission objective to give critical resources for the governments by providing the dexterity, experience, and dependability that is synchronized to the emergency responses so they can protect, work together, and respond. (ATT, 2017 and 2016) TYPES OF CRISIS It is important to identify types of crisis especially developing or assessing crisis management plans. Potential crisis is immense, but can be combined to make it bigger (snowball effect). Organizational crises are depicted as low-probability and high-consequence situations and are commonly categorized by uncertainty. The efficient management of an organizational crisis is reliant on leadership performance that reassures members to dynamically participate in knowledge acquisition and the devising of strategies to rectify the crisis. (Advameg, Inc, 2017) (James and Wooten, 2005) It is imperative that leaders foster a set of skills that will support in prevention and the efficiency to reacting to the crisis issues. Crisis leadership competencies are especially significant in dealing with the operational, strategic, and human resource functions and outcomes when crises transpire. Additionally, leaders need to be able to adapt and overcome these crises based off their training, knowledge, and experiences of past and present. (Advameg, Inc, 2017) (James and Wooten, 2005) The two most organization crisis that are face today are sudden and smolder crisis. Sudden crises are situations that happen without any type of warning and it is beyond the organizations control, such as organization related incidents and natural disasters. (Advameg, Inc, 2017) (James and Wooten, 2005) Smoldering crisis are serious organization issues that known within or without the organization. Additionally, they typically start out with minor internal issues that leaders can control (negligence) and can have a negative perspective coverage if it goes public, such as major controlling actions, government inquiries, customer and employee accusations, and media investigations. (Advameg, Inc, 2017) (James and Wooten, 2005) Smoldering crisis causes the most harm and destroys the reputation to the organization. Furthermore, it can be difficult to discover and try to resolve (egos and abilities) due to directly or indirectly involve management decisions. (Advameg, Inc, 2017) ATT has an all-inclusive response, recovery, and restoration program that supported by its internal processes that allow for minimal impact to the customers. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs IT Service Continuity (ITSC) is a resource that identifies and manages the IT service continuity risks. Furthermore, it safeguards and helps to minimize risk, cost, and duration of disruption to major sensitive service processes within and to their customers worldwide. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Another resource utilized to restore normality from a crisis is the Network Disaster Recovery (NDR) team. It can provide quick recovery services for a broad range of disaster scenarios to include providing recovery over the global network. The main role of the ATT NDR is to recover the services of compromised networks and to take care of their assigned personnel on the team. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) The training plan for ATTs employees is very extensive. The managers, engineers, and technicians receive special types of training in physical recovery of the network and participate in recovery exercises annually to understand and practice the skills of the NDRs equipment and processes. Furthermore, the ensures that personnel know how to do the assigned tasks in case of an emergency or crisis. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) LEADERSHIP NEEDED FOR SUCCESS Effective leaders possess the same traits and characteristics such as effective communication, knowledge, experiences, and upbeat personality. The traits combine to shape the core of the most effective leaders. The traits are necessary and are important for an effective crisis leader. (James and Wooten, 2005) The following characteristics explain the top leadership characteristics needed for success prior, during, and after a crisis. Leaders need to have coordination to build team cohesion and integration. Effective leaders need to be able to define, analyze and understand the unique complexities of each crisis to make the right decisions. Leaders should be able to react efficiently under stress during a crisis. Additionally, being goal oriented to lay out the short and long term goals (setting objectives). (James and Wooten, 2005) Leaders need to be able to give information and have two way communications (active listening) to include interacting in an open and honest way with other people to the context of different perspectives to a crisis (team work). Leaders need to be able to think outside the box (open-minded and adaptive) when reflecting and understanding different solutions to a crisis. (James and Wooten, 2005) Leaders are always responsible and take ownership of resolving the crisis to include recognizing others if it was a team event. Leaders have the trait of prioritizing by having the sense of balance to recognize what issues need to be resolved first and what is the most important to resolving other decisions or solutions. Lastly, leaders need to be trained and prepared by being knowledgeable of the organizations contingency plans and recovery operations to include the skills, abilities and traits of the organizations members. (James and Wooten, 2005) ATTs business plan is a roadmap to the goals of ATTs business metrics, prioritization, imperatives, and capabilities among all the components within the organization. The success of leadership comes from the guidelines based in the business plan and they are aligned with what was mentioned above. The success of execution of ATT has leaders working together to capitalize on their competitiveness in the market. The leaders analyze the long term calculated risks and anticipate the mitigation to overcome the risks. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) The experience aligns participants to ATTs strategic direction and objectives, and enables them to develop and practice leadership skills that will support successful execution of the companys plans, including leading change. The participating leaders are committed to a personal action plan and drawing a line of sight from the companys strategic objectives to their day-to-day work. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) The plans focus on concrete actions that leaders would take to lead with distinction and accelerate execution of ATTs strategic imperatives. In addition, they provide a monetary profit improvement estimate. The leaders outline how their plan will serve to improve return on invested capital which is a long-term measure for the company (One ATT). To date, participants have targeted hundreds of millions of dollars of improvements aligned to the One ATT strategy. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Moreover, the initiative has been credited with accelerating the formation of new workgroups and organization changes to support the strategy. The leaders are involved with the action plans and objectives in the daily operations. The plans focus on the leaders managing the execution of the strategic imperatives to include profit improvements and how to improve the plans. The right talent of leadership is needed to be committed to have constant innovation, motivation, and persistency. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Furthermore, ATTs leaders are disciplined and focused so it reflects on the team and the markets. ATTs leaders must possess competencies to improve the structure and operations of the organization (positive intent, ability, shared respect, and the impact for trust-building). Additionally, the leaders go through a five phase concept such as signal detection (sense making), preparation and prevention (averting the crisis), containment and damage control (reputation), business recovery (normal operations), and learning (experience and opportunities). (ATT, 2016, 2010, a nd 2005) The main effort to save the reputation of ATT is to have a crisis communication plan. The effort to communicate to the public and the stakeholders when events occur is vital. The main things to discuss is the philosophy, assessing vulnerabilities, and to create a procedures to overcome. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) MODELS AND THEORIES ATT has models and theories that are associated with crisis management, just like any other organizations. The models and theories are as follows: crisis management strategy, crisis management model, crisis management planning, contingency planning, business continuity planning, structural-functional systems theory, crisis leadership, and social media and crisis management. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs crisis management strategy is intended to prevent crisis for following up the advancements of the organization. It projects the future ongoing monitoring of internal and external environment crisis as well as selection and implementation of the prevention strategy and management of operations (control and coping strategies). (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs management model for a crisis is about leaders understanding how to handle a crisis before the occurrence, such as avoidance, mitigation and recovery. The phases involves diagnosis of imminent situations or signals, selecting the best improvement strategy, and implementation of the process and monitoring. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT is like any other organization who doesnt look forward to dealing with crisis situations that can cause them to be distracted from their operations, especially the ones that deal with the media. Furthermore, the public enquiry can put a negative effect, specifically on financial, political, legal and government influences. In other words, the CEO of ATT is prepared and has a plan to deal with having the best response to a crisis, such as impacts and what they are doing about the situation (crisis management planning). (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Social media can have information become viral instantly. It breaks news faster than the traditional media, which makes managing a crisis difficult. ATT has mitigations dealing with social media situations and conducts training how to deal with the media. Furthermore, ATT has a policy in place to include social media tools for monitoring. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) The tools can also provide the crisis management teams access to real time information regarding the impacts of the crisis and who is impacted with their concerns. ATT has a planned approach created under their continuity and contingency plans on how information is released to the media. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Additionally, the plans will have the reaction process that includes the crisis management team and other leaders. The leaders and the crisis management teams of ATT understand how to deal with the media and they are prepared based off training scenarios. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT integrates contingency plans in the management planning process. The first step they take is to ensure the organization is prepared for any type crisis. The management teams train on scenarios and plan from it. The plan developed stipulates the procedures to include who would speak to the public regarding the crisis. Additionally, it is vital to have cooperation in any crisis and ATT assures questions are answered to include information to resolve the situation. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT identifies the initial part of the crisis is the most crucial and speed and efficiency to resolve the situation is important, specifically having programs and communications quickly operational. ATTs contingency plan has the information and guidance to support the decision makers to deliberate short and long term effects of the decisions. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs continuity plan supports the disruptions and it identifies the vital functions and processes that are essential to the operations. Additionally, ATT develops this plan early. The plan is part of the impact analysis phase that discusses the organizations losses. The functions that are vital has their own contingency plans to mitigate the situation. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Furthermore, the plan provides the mechanisms to allow resiliency and provide recovery assets. ATT stresses the importance of rehearsing the actions needed in exercises so the team members will act swiftly and effectively. Furthermore, the exercises provide a purpose to allow ATT to conduct debriefings to understand and document lessons learned (fictional to reality). To ensure effectiveness, ATT ensures the plan is reviewed and makes changes as necessary for validation. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT provides information to their employees and other audiences. Structural-functional system theories are essential in an effective crisis management. It focuses on the information networks and command communications. Furthermore, it identifies the flow of information within ATT. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT demonstrates leadership competencies that facilitate the recovery during and after a crisis. The organization builds an environment of trust to their customers and simultaneously improves their organization approach. The leaders identify the noticeable and unknown vulnerabilities and make wise and rapid decisions to mitigate risks to alleviate the crisis. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Additionally, the leaders at ATT make a point to learn and develop tactics, techniques, and procedures to effect the change in the organization. The testing and validating the continuity and contingency plans support the validation of leadership during a crisis to include the structure. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) PREPAREDNESS PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PHASES During ATTs preparedness planning and developing phases, the organization identifies their mission critical functions to efficiently manage risks. The functions all the organization to give critical services, civil authority, safety to the public, and sustain economics. ATT takes a proactive approach to respond and the preparedness plans specify the redundant systems, back-up sites (telecommunications), employee communications, and alternate work sites if needed. Furthermore, the plans have customer communications instantly after the crisis. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT leadership understand the importance of the impacts of any given crisis that could affect the national security, citizen services and economic well-being. In the end, the preparedness planning is essential to the operational functions across the comprehensive range of hazards and emergencies that could impact physical assets, buildings, and people. During the preparedness planning, ATT utilizes these planning princ iples to prepare for any type scenario of a crisis that could arise. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT has a understanding of the functions that are vital to the organization and how the different situations of a crisis could impact operations, such as services and products (processes and impacts). Furthermore, the understanding of how the situations will impact leadership, abilities, security, and communications (mission-critical functions). In the end, by determining all that was mentioned will determine the type of response needed to mitigate the risks. Additionally, it will establish the authority and emphasis the resources to effectively help the response to any given situation. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT finds it necessary to complete a functional risk assessment to address the critical functions and then make the suitable investments. Additionally, the assessment identifies the processes, resources, and suppliers which have a great impact to serving the customers to reach mission objectives. ATT can also identify the threats, the vulnerabilities and the probability that the threats will exploit the vulnerabilities based off the risk assessment. In other words, ATT can identify the relative risk exposure to the different elements and make fact based decisions on mitigation plans. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) The recovery strategies are a part of the preparedness plans and development phase. It allows for continuity strategies. ATT determines what it needs to perform and what options are available based off internal or external resources. Additionally, they can determine what to prioritize. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT utilizes the risk assessment and recovery strategies to develop contingency plans to specific situations. Furthermore, the organization ensures the activities from the strategies are accomplished in a systematic and harmonious way to ensure validation of the plan and personnel to include the plan being practical. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) During the development phase and preparedness planning, ATT construct an all-inclusive plan and provision disaster recovery capabilities contingency plan to give the interoperable communication and continuity of essential operations with key stakeholders. An order that gives delegation to leadership is given so essential operations can continue if key leadership is unable to manage. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs contingency plans identifies incremental strategic and practical changes to the continuity plan to include identifying gaps in the abilities. Furthermore, it is essential to implement any new abilities prior to a situation occurring. It will allow for a success in the recovery stage, such as ATT fail over to Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) from wired networks. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATT are always testing, training, and conducting exercises to ensure the continuity plans are able to be implemented with or without warnings. The plans are tested on a methodical basis and as realistic as possible to ensure validation and effectiveness. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) It requires a development of tests for how they will operate from their abilities (emergency response). Furthermore, it includes recovery operations. ATTs emergency response teams (Network Disaster Recovery (NDR) Team) provide opportunities to obtain the required skills to execute their assigned roles in the response. Once testing, training, and exercises are conducted, ATT considers the changes based off the situations and adjust their preparedness plan so they can validate. The changes made reflect in the continuity plan and with their emergency response. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) CONCLUSION Based off the research and seeing how ATT prepares and develops their plans, it is essential to plan for the worse case scenario. ATTs ability to respond quickly and effectively is vital in protecting their staff, profits, reputation and the necessary operations. It requires an all-inclusive and cross organizational planning effort. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Additionally, the plan is developed over a larger scale, global. By having a preparedness planning and development phase, it will support the mitigation of a crisis. (Pearson, 2002) To apply the preparedness phase, it will involve the development of each phase of the crisis management system. The planning gives the combined method and common terminology to the plan for all threats and hazards across all mission areas (Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery). (Pearson, 2002) The plans and processes need to be reviewed and supplemented accordingly to meet the analysis and assessments made from training and exe rcises. Additionally, the personnel in the organization need to know their roles. By having a proactive approach and the understanding of sensitive mission-critical functions, it will allow organizations to provide vital services, exercise civil authority, maintain the safety of their employees and the public, and to sustain its industrial or economic base. (FEMA, N/A) The risks assessments that are developed by ATT allow identification, assessing, and reacting to possible threats. With the existing vulnerabilities, the likelihood that a threat will utilize the identified vulnerabilities is probably imminent. (ATT, 2017 and 2016) Furthermore, the assessments allow to provide the adequate controls and risk mitigations, such as facilitate the planning, testing, investments, and actual recovery of IT critical infrastructure and applications. The mitigation of risks protects the overall integrity, reputation and brand to include controlling it, prioritizing it and organizing it quickly and efficiently. ATT considers the changes to any situation and environment that could affect preparedness. (ATT, 2017 and 2016) ATT validates the continuity plan that is implemented by conducting training, testing and exercises to ensure the plan works in the time of a disaster and if any improvement needs to be done to the continuity plan and the emergency response. (A TT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs response planning phases clearly define the use of resources from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and can be utilized as a reference point for disaster and event planning. (FEMA, N/A) By having exercises to identify gaps, it will allow for assessing the impact of a disaster or crisis for the organization. Additionally, it will identify the gaps and risk that are not so obvious (small to larger events). (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) Crisis communication is essential to withstand any crisis and may in the end rest on the effectiveness with employees, customers, suppliers, and any other interested stakeholders. The readiness to deliver the right message about the impacts is essential to both internal and external dependencies. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) In summary, the continuity plan, risk assessments, and the dependencies need to be communicated to the organization. Additionally, the organization needs to be able to foresee crises, distinguish crisis communications team, identify and train spokespersons, establish notification and monitoring systems, identify and know the stakeholders, create statements, evaluate the crisis, confirm and adapt significant messages, and analysis after the crisis. (ATT, 2016, 2010, and 2005) ATTs mission is to connect people with their world, everywhere they live and work, and do it better that anyone else. Were fulfilling this vision by creating new solutions for consumers and businesses and by driving innovation in the communications and entertainment industry. (ATT, 2017 and 2016) ATTs preparedness is proactive and is essential to maintain a reliable global network when a crisis strikes. BIBLIOGRAPHY Advameg, Inc (2017). References for Business, Crisis Management, Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Crisis-Management.html. James, E., Wooten, L. (2005). Leadership as (un)usual: How to display competence in times of crisis, Organizational Dynamics, 34(2), 141-152, Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/science/article/pii/S009026160500015X. (TUI Online Library). James, E., Wooten, L. (2005). Linking Crisis Management and Leadership Competencies: The Role of Human Resource Development, Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org /01e3/6a70c0952a465c99260c55da1b89ba6de3ee.pdf. ATT (2017). About ATT, Retrieved from: http://about.att.com/mediakit/vitalconnections. ATT (2016). Business Continuity Preparedness Handbook, Managing risk through proactive planning, Retrieved from: https://www.att.com/Common/about_us/pdf/business_continuity_ handbook.pdf, June 2016. ATT (2010). Successfully Mitigating Corporate Risk, Retrieved from: https://www.business.att.com/content/whitepaper/successfully-mitigating-corporate-risk.pdf, October 1, 2010. ATT (2005). ATT Network Continuity Overview, Retrieved from: https://www.corp.att.com/ndr/pdf/cpi_5181.pdf, January 25, 2005. FEMA (N/A). Business, Retrieved from: https://www.ready.gov/business. FEMA (N/A). Implementation, Retrieved from: https://www.ready.gov/business/implementation. Pearson, Christine (2002). Ivey Business Journal, A Blueprint for Crisis Management, Retrieved from: http://iveybusinessjournal.com/publication/a-blueprint-for-crisis-management/, January/February 2002.
Impact Of Agents Of Socialization On Pester Power Education Essay Introduction In this ever changing world, there is an increasing trend in the recognition of pester power of children by the marketers. Pester power is basically the influencing power of the children which they exercise in their routine life to get what they want and indirectly affect the buying decision of their parents. The basic reason behind the acknowledgement of pester power is that exposure of the children is growing over time as they are getting more social so dictating buying decisions of their parents. Thus pester power will be the main focus of my dissertation and the researcher will attempt to determine various factors of socialization that are gradually playing their role in strengthening this kid-influence on parents purchase of products. Background The term Pester Power first originated in US in late 1970s, described as the power children had, by repeated nagging, of influencing their parents to buy advertised or fashionable items. Nicholls and Cullen (2004) studied this parent-child relationship which results in pester power and developed a matrix for it which shows that while a family in making a buying decision parents and child both have to make a tradeoff between desire of control over decision and self realization of resulting purchase. Figure below is the matrix developed by Nicholls and Cullen (2004) it depicts that when children has high self realization and parents have high desire for control their interaction results in pester power of children. Source: Nicholls, A. J., Cullen, P. (2004). The child-parent purchase relationship: pester power, human rights and retail ethics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services Problem discussion Children has an increased access to pocket money and a bigger say in purchase decisions is a result of children getting more information from various sources, being more social and demanding as well. This increase in population of youngsters and their influencing power determines a large potential customer base for marketers. Objectives and research question Based upon above background of study and problem discussion, purpose or main objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of how the agents of socialization of children make them influence their parents purchase decision. In order to conduct this research, research questions are Primary Research question RQ: Do the agents of socialization have an impact on pester power of children? Subsidiary Research questions RQ2: Does parents/peer pressure has an impact on pester power? RQ3: Do advertisements and TV programs have an impact on pester power? Literature Review Kids represent an important market segment to marketers because kids have their own buying behavior. More importantly, kids could monitor the buying decisions of their adult parents because they are the adults of future. Today most of the advertisers spend more on TV advertisements having children content to attract more children which are going to change the behavior of their parents. There are different variables involved in pester power effectiveness. That is what McNeal and Yeh, (1997) has also stated that due to increase in awareness of children market potential had increased in three ways that the children were spending money they had, that is essentially their pocket money, to satisfy their own needs and wants. Secondly, they influenced their parents spending and finally they eventually would become a loyal customer base for the companies in the long run. Interaction with parents is the first thing that influences children buying behaviors. The parents teach their children the buying behavior. Same proposition was given by Ward et al (1977) that primary socialization agents for children were parents and children behavior in adulthood was dominated by their parental influence. If there is a direct and clear communication between the children and their parents then children could be easily influenced by their parents. Mostly the pester power works if there is more emotional engagement between the parents and their children. Children learn from their parents the way in which they live, buy and eat. Moore and Moschis (1981) and Mascarenhas and Higby (1993) stated that the most instrumental among social entities were parents from which children learnt consumer behavior. Another researcher Moschis (1985) has concluded that interaction of children with all other entities was majorly influenced by their parents, when they were in direct or in direct contact with each other. Along with this he also postulated that, because of the nature of parent-child relationship, effects of other agents of socialization like peer groups and mass media were modified to a large extent. Peer Pressure is the second component of the research question, which influences children buying behaviors. Children spent a lot of their time in certain peer groups such as at school, play places or street friends belonging to different families. A child learns a lot from other children. The extent to which these gatherings influence varies from situation to situation. For example, a child can even make a decision to buy his school bag by looking at other children. Same element of influence was studied by many researchers including Parsons et al., (1953), David and Roseboroug (1955), Moschis and Moore (1981) has described the impact of peer pressure in two ways, expressive consumption and effective consumption. By expressive consumption they mean the social motivations and the materialistic values that are associated with the purchases while on the other hand, purchase styles and modes of consumptions were categorized as effective consumption influence. This study comes in line with my study that social motivation and the purchase patterns of both the parents and peers influence children. This influence may or may not be productive as Bachmann, et al (1993) stated that consumption learning from peers affected child consumer socialization directly or indirectly. Another research, stated earlier, by Ward (1974) has explained the relationship of parental influence and peer pressure with age that as age increases parental influence is over shadowed by peer pressure Impact of advertisements content and TV programs on children has gained significant importance by researchers and marketers. Berns (2004) has given a reason for the fact that children are now being used as a marketing tool is their cognitive immaturity, he argued on this point by saying that children were more likely to believe that the images or characters they see on TV were real. Some of ways in which this agent of socialization influences the pester power of children are: Making children desire things which their parents do not want to purchase by showing attractive contents in advertisements. Encouraging children to influence or advocate the buying behavior of their parents Presenting children as heroes in a particular situation such as showing a scene in which other children are in danger and one child adopts the rule of savior etc. Making Children feel inferior by showing them that if they will not buy a particular product they are not good but bad. According to OGuinn and Shrum (1997),a advertising and programming content are the two channels of communication which inform children and young people about products and encourage them to purchase. Another point that O Guinn and Shrum (1997) has stated in their findings is that consumer behavior was learned by children more easily if they were targeted with persuasion shown in commercials and various TV programs. Expansion in media messages and continuous changes in media environment are two key contributors for increasing the level of advertisement subjected towards children. Store Visits and Retailing environments also influence children buying behavior as Shim, et al (1995) proposed that children became more conscious about the information regarding products such as price and brands the more often parent took their children for the shopping. Keeping this in view marketer induce sales by adding some incentives for children to influence their parents to buy a product. For example, a fast food restaurant usually adds play place along with the dining hall or some retailer give away toys, snacks, sweets as gift with the products purchased. Although products are for adults but retailers make children pester their parents to buy that product. The attractive display of product also works in inducing this power more efficiently; these kinds of purchases made by parents under the influence of children are usually impulse purchases. According to research conducted by Schulman and Clancy (1992) on the most admired after school activities among the children depicts that watching TV got the highest attractive scores while second on the list was shopping which shows that in either of the two cases our research questions are being supported that these agents of socializations are impacting children behavior to a large extent. Cartoon character and Celebrities endorsement also has some bearing on children buying behavior. A recent study conducted by Dotson and Hyatt (2005) states that association of brands with certain popular sports, music and stars had increase the level of influence on children. Almost all children watch cartoon programs and other children oriented TV programs such as Quiz shows, Sports Shows etc. By introducing heroic characters like super-man, spider-man and various celebrities in advertisement make children buy that product because of emotional attachment of children with these things. Product category and stage of decision making process are being varied by children as the amount of influence they exert and product they prefer. For some product categories they influence purchase made by the parents and for some other products they are active initiators, information seekers, and buyers. Children influence is different for different products, product sub division, nature of socialization of children and they prefer product what they are attracted towards. Beside of the goods which are for direct consumption, children shows their influence in buying of goods for their family as their parents are less involved in the goods are preferred by them and preference increases in case of less expensive and the products for their own use. (Belch, 2004) Today, most of the marketers are targeting kids because of the change in demographics and psychographics of children population. The first learning point for the children about Where to buy is from family. The family characteristics such as family environment and parental lifestyle enhances the impact of the role of children in the different stages of taking buying decisions, as stated by Belch (2004) as well. Most of the children, when they go out with their parents on shopping, learn where a particular product or service is available and how they can reach them. The second source of children learning about where to buy comes from peer or social group they usually spend their time. As Belch (2004) stated that cultural values influence consumption related behaviors of children. The third source of children learning about where to buy comes from different advertisements and TV programs. There is big problem for children and their parents as viewers because young children are easily at tracted towards the content of advertisements and promotions. Theoretical Framework The independent variable in this study is agents of socialization and the dependent variable is pester power of children. Agents of socialization Pester power Independent variable Dependent Variable Operationalization In order to quantify independent variable, agents of socialization, the researcher has identified two indicators based upon the findings of literature review which are operationalized as under: Parent/Peer pressure: How the parents buying behavior and patterns are learned by the children because they are in constant contact with them and to what extent the interaction of children with their peer transform their preferences for products? Advertisements / TV programs: How much attention children pay to what they see on television, the retail environment impact children in nagging for a particular product and to what extent children get inclined towards a cartoon character or even children in a commercial? In order to quantify the dependent variable, pester power the researcher has identified three indicators which are operationalized as follows: Product preferences: How much differences in preference of children make them influence their parents purchase decision? Where to buy: How do children know from where they can get their desired product? How to buy: Do they know the tactic of buying the product, by nagging? Hypothesis The hypotheses developed for conducting the research are: H1: There is a relationship between agents of socialization and pester power Null Hypothesis: There is no relationship between agents of socialization and pester power Alternative hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between agents of socialization and pester power. Objectives of the Research Study Several factors such as interaction with parents, interaction with peers, shopping experiences and advertisement (Normal + Celebrity endorsement) has increased the nagging behavior of children. The more increase in interactions of a child with all these factors; it gives rise to pester power or the power of nagging in the child. For measuring pester power, the researcher has prepared a questionnaire (See Appendix) for measuring the impact of these two variables (parent/peer pressure and advertising) on pester power in children. The objective of this study is to measure the nature of relationship that exists between parent/peer pressure, advertising and pester power. Another objective is to find out if only these variables are there to boost up the pester power or there is also something else which has not yet been discovered in the previous research conducted (literature review) on pester power. Due to limited time and money constraints, it is not possible to get accurate and pure results, but the researcher will try his best to get the better results from limited resources. The finding of this study will also be helpful in the professional career of researcher being a business student. There is dramatic increase in the population of youngsters. Being an entrepreneur or marketer, this study will help the researcher to devise an efficient marketing communication strategy in his professional career for example this part of population can be targeted in marketing campaigns because of their larger proportion in the total population and maximum net marketing contribution can be obtained out of it. Secondly, this study will also be beneficial to the parents. The reason is, due to increase in population of youngsters, the marketers are targeting them in their marketing communications. This trend has positive as well as negative effects. Some marketers are using unethical tactics to market their product which is socially unacceptable. This study will help the parents to efficiently control the exposure of children to advertising and parent/peer pressure to minimize pester power and its negative effects. Research Methodology Design This study will be a questionnaire study. In questionnaire study, the respondents will be given a questionnaire and they will have to select from only available options. It is not a laboratory experiment where the environment of respondents can be controlled. It is a social research and the respondents are humans. The environment or context of this research cannot be controlled. The researcher will conduct questionnaire surveys. Questionnaire surveys are appropriate because these surveys allow quantification of data and thus quantitative evidences will be used to justify the results from research study. Questionnaire Surveys will help to gain required responses which can be further converted in quantitative terms for research. Subjects To test above mentioned hypothesis, the researcher will need to find data about agents of socialization and level of pester power. This data will be collected from parents having kids entering a shopping mall. The researcher will be using non-probability sampling method. A sample size of 100 parents entering shopping malls will be taken. Large shopping malls will be targeted for carrying out this research study. Convenience sampling method will be used for this research study. Instruments Instrument for carrying out research is already discussed above which is questionnaire surveys (quantitative research) for getting deep insights of the research problem. The researcher chose questionnaire surveys to get desired responses because quantification of data was desired. Moreover, the subjects find it easy to select an answer from given responses and therefore the response rate of questionnaire surveys are high. An interviewer completed questionnaire of close-ended statements will be used. Each questionnaire is expected to be completed within 10 minutes. So, questionnaire surveys are more flexible than any other instruments for research. Therefore, the above instruments for research study are reliable. Similarly statistical tests like z-test and t-test will be used to measure the reliability of measures. Context The research will be applied to the retail industry of United Kingdom (UK) by visiting the retail chains, retail stores and shopping malls. The research will be conducted from parents visiting the retail stores, retail chains and shopping malls of UK retail industry. Only those parents will be interviewed who will have the children under the age of 10-20 years old. Results Results obtained from the research study will be tested and validated by statistical measures using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. A z-test and t-test will be used to test significance among variables. Moreover, ANOVA will also be used to test significance of variables. Similarly, results obtained from focus groups and in-depth interviews will be tested qualitatively by recording video of these events. Research Paradigm This study Impact of agents of socialization on pester power is a quantitative, deductive and correlation study. The study is quantitative because it involves collection and analysis of numerical data as questionnaires responses can be measured on different scales and could be coded. The study is deductive because hypotheses is tested as There is a positive relationship between agents of socialization and pester power. The researcher arrived at the above hypothesis from the literature review. Now, the researcher already has a statement in the form of hypothesis, and this statement would be tested by collection of data and analysis which is a deductive approach. Finally this study is correlation study because a relationship is being measured between two different kinds of independent variables and dependent variable. In this study, agents of socialization are independent variables and pester power is dependent variable. Ethical Concerns The participants of the research study will be involved in the research with their informed consent by explaining them the purpose of the research study. The participants of the research study will be at minimal risk with no physical harm. A briefing would be given to respondents about the purpose of study by explaining the true nature of our study in order to have their informed consent. The respondents will be given a free choice to opt for giving information and responding to the questionnaire. The element of confidentiality and privacy will be of major concern during this study. The researcher will ensure confidentiality by using dummy data. Limitations It is a single mans effort and therefore some limitations will also be associated with the project and these limitations would be constraints of time and cost. In case of questionnaires surveys, participant in hurry or thinking about something else may choose a wrong response. Moreover, fatigue, anger and hunger may alter the interpretations of surveys. There could be human errors in the analysis and presentation of results. Conclusion The prime users of the study conducted will be the marketers who have to develop their advertising campaign. This point is also very important for parents as well, they try to reduce this pester power in their children, because it bring about negative changes in them, this is the reason that many countries like Canada have banned such advertisements that enhances pester power in children.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Conservative Personalities 1. Conservative From the introduction, we know that the performance has begun to suffer under Jack's style of leadership. It is mainly due to the personality of Jack. He is a quite conservative person who has a tendency to maintain a state of affairs without great or sudden change. Also, his style of leadership is task and production-oriented. Task-oriented leadership tends to emphasize task effectiveness. So, from the case, we can see that he would turn down the subordinates* suggestion whenever new ideas come. Jack seems to define role and tell people what, how, when and where to do various tasks only. On the other hand, Jack isn't a relationship-oriented leader as he doesn't emphasize the building of relationships with employees. Accordingly, Jack can't maintain a good relationship with his subordinates. In his mind, he thinks that there is no equality status between the superior and the subordinates. He would highly respect the superior order without questioning. Thus, we can see that Jack is very loyal to Carfax Corporation and works hard to follow the company policies and procedures and the orders of the managers above him. Under such leader, the performance of the financial section has begun to suffer. Due to his conservative personality, the tendency to face changes is very low. When sudden changes occur and as the same time the upper doesn't give guidelines immediately, Jack can't handle well under this situation. Then the flexibility and imagination in facing different situations tend to absolutely low. Because his task-oriented leadership, he always neglects the new ideas and unresponsive to change. Mostly important, Jack doesn't realize the importance of staff motivation. Subordinates think that the budget in their section is comparatively lower than other department. As a result, they feel they are underpaid and overworked. Overwork implies that the shortage of workforce. And underpaid mean that the workload is greater than the payment for it. As Jack has such Ã¢â¬Å"easygoing" manner, considerable dissatisfaction in the department is resulted and everyone thinks that Jack is just a puppet for management. 2. Team Work Not only the conservative personalities cause the financial section to suffer, but also he has neglected the importance of team work. Team work means that two or more people who interact with an influence each other towards a common interest. Financial section is actually a team work. However, from the case, we can see that Jack doesn't manage his subordinates to be a team work. Instead, he looks them as labors. He only orders his subordinates what to do and how to do without any subordinates* ideas. Then it just like a factory
Friday, July 19, 2019
On My Way to Medical School As I paced the long dim and silent halls of Floor 3, I breathed in that distinctive Ã¢â¬Å"hospital smell,Ã¢â¬ that one cannot even begin to describe or pinpoint. Looking down another long hall, I finally saw a doctor come out of the corridors briskly walking toward the waiting lounge where my family had been the past few hours. My grandfather anxiously stepped out to speak with the heart surgeon and for the first time in my life, I saw tears flow from my grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s pale and tired face. After the doctor left, my family members each took turns to go in and see, visit grandma. Between the visits, my grandpa and I sat together while he told me wonderful stories about my grandma and what a wonderful lady she had been to him through their fifty years of marriage. He told me my favorite stories; how they met, how he courted her and how he proposed, but most of all how she had taken care of him through it all. The time had come when it was my turn to go into her room. My family didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pressure me at all; in fact it took me three attempts to finally go in. When I did walk in, tears immediately started to flow, but I continued to get closer until I was right beside my grandma holding her hand in mine. I started talking right away and telling my grandma the details of my last few weeks in high school. My turn was over and while on my way out, still holding her hand, I leaned over through all the wires and machines and kissed my grandma on the forehead and whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"I love youÃ¢â¬ in her ear. For the first time in two days, she responded. She squeezed my hand as if she were saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I love you too!Ã¢â¬ My grandmother had been diagnosed with colon cancer a few weeks prior to when the doctors found a blocked artery in her heart. Because this took precedence over the colonoscopy, this heart by-pass surgery had to be completed before or else she would not make it through the colonoscopy. The recovery time for this surgery was not supposed to be very long at all, thus permitting her colon surgery to be performed shortly after.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
A reverse of this trend is crucial to reach some of the projected sales numbers that Boeing is counting on. There are several factors to these lower numbers. A decrease in business travel has occurred due to cost and the advance of conferencing technologies. And lastly, the weak economy has vacationers thinking of local destinations instead of traveling abroad. Market Share BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s fiercest competitor is Airbus. It is crucial that the new 7E7 delivers on its promise of lower operating cost. This will help command a larger share of the market. This becomes even more important if the economy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t recover as quickly as we hope. The other aspect of the 7E7Ã¢â¬â¢s success is the engineering of an expandable wing. Adding this versatility will give the 7E7 owner more options for travel routes. Sensitivity Analysis The following is the sensitivity analysis of the Boeing project which gives optimistic and pessimistic estimates for the underlying variables of volume and cost of sales. The purpose of the sensitivity analysis is to express cash flows in terms of the variables of this project. Boeing had to determine what the decide what the underlying variables were which in this case happen to be development costs and the per-copy costs to build the 7E7. For the project to increase shareholder wealth, Boeing would have to sell at least 2,500 aircraft over a 20-year period. Airbus is a close competitor. They will be coming to market with a new A380. If Boeing falls behind regarding innovation, they may lose their market share. For Boeing to have a future in the aviation industry, they must take the risk to develop this new place. With the economy so volatile, airlines will be looking for options that reduce their operational costs. The 7E7 will do this. The success of the expandable wing will give the plane attractive versatility. Fuel prices are also on the rise, this is yet another reason why a plane with a lower operating cost will succeed in the future The equity market risk premium should equal the excess return expected by investors on the market portfolio. In this case it was calculated to be 7. 14%. The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) was calculated to be 15. 443%. For the project to increase shareholder wealth, the IRR of the project should at least equal the WACC. For this to happen Boeing would have to sell at least 2500 airliners in a 20-year period.
The film bug bys with the com custodyce handst of the second human war and fe manful baseb every(prenominal) last(predicate) ladderers are drafted into the all(a) American Girls Baseb every(prenominal) League, in the attempt to save the summercater. With the induction of this federation, the daughters obtained the misfortune to bear witness how women deserve an equal accident in sports, an opportunity to pose their delicate shape and exertion, and free themselves from the clutches of note class life through conquest in the sport.The value of family was portrayed passim the film and became a sack up precedency for few of the players. In achieving a snatch on a team the girls also had to conform to the rules and requirements that the owners of the union were demanding. To give this confederacy the popularity it needed, the girls needed to work effortful to be the fusions top players in every team. They any acquired the chance to go to training camps and can vas divulge for teams that would be placed into the partnership.The cadence of work they displayed to get placed on the team showed that they wanted to earn the follow of the country and show that women could do to a greater extent than just care for kids or be in charge of the kitchen. They worked extremely laboured to show that women could play the sport as easily as men could. For example, this unflagging value was best portrayed by Kit, integrity of the individuals who played for the coalition. She got her sister to play because that was the plainly way they would befool her and she did not want to stay on a furthermostm for the rest of her life.Her persistent pose helped her reach her goal and she became one of the top players of her time just worry her sister. The family value are expressed greatly through go forth the film by all the char arrangeers, alone particularly by Dotti. Many of the women on the team had spouses in the army or back hearthstone. Dotti w as the protagonist who was a girl with beauty and love of the sport like no former(a) girl. What was different rough her, besides world extremely squeamish in the sport and never having a bad blue, was that in her mind she was only contend while her husband was in the war.She loved the game, but her husband and family were unceasingly more important for her. The conflict betwixt winning and her sisters homage ended with her realizing that being friends with her sister was far more important than winning or playing in a baseball game game league. The women dealt with external conformity within the league because of the rules and regulations that the owners had placed on apparel and sort of play. The women were required to wear a overreach outfit and makeup while they were playing.They were all forced to take etiquette classes and learn how to act like ladies. The women were upset with this because they had joined the league to play the sport they loved not to go out on th e eye socket and model for the fans. This word picture was utilise to display that women were not inferior to men and to show how the game of baseball was used as more than publicity. The hard work and perseverance gave women in the united states a signified of hope and desire to succeed in a masculine dominated world.A League of Their Own EssayIn A League of Their Own, a girls baseball league was started while the professional male baseball players, along with many other men, were a foul up seas fighting in gentleman War II. This movie takes place in 1943. A group of ladies left their homes to construct part of the All-American Girls Baseball League to discover the baseball traditions alive.In this movie, gender roles are crossed. After years of perpetrating the image of the gentle little women who sat at home caring for her lord and master, American conjunction suddenly found that it needed women who were qualified to do hard skilled work during World War II (Ebert). Th is was alarming to the nation and threatening to some. During one of the scenes, a radio announcer announces that the league was dangerous to hostelry. She called it inner confusion. Much of the country began to worry closely what type of women the men would befuddle to deign back to.Society believes that women should be polished and nurturing, not matched. At this time, women were also racetrack the businesses and factories. Working in factories and playing free-enterprise(a) sports were considered to be the role of the males. Women are to be sensitive, nurturing, and open (Johnsen). By playing sports and works in factories, women began to take over some more masculine traits. This was threatening to the men. They truism this as loosing control. Women play many separate in mens engagement for control. One part that women play is to jut out the idea that men and women are fundamentally different because this gives men a class and unambiguous turf masculinity on which to pursue control in disputation with one another (Johnsen). This menace mens role and their sense of control. This threatened their masculinity.Even though women were now winning over the factories and sports while the men were away, there still were many politics involved. sort of of this new baseball league being looked at as a competitive sport, it was more of a show. One of the scouts in this movie did not want to take one of the most outstanding baseball players because she wasnt pretty. The scout finds her too unembellished for the league (Brown). Also, they were forced to wear douse outfits to play in the dirt. When the women complained about that, the male instructor commented that they should be glad he isnt going to make them all wear bathing suits to play in.As if the uniforms werent discrimination enough, each and every girl had to take classes at a charm and beauty school. Here, they taught these women how to be ladies. They critiqued them in every way. They wal ked around and inspected each one, tell for haircuts, eyebrow waxings, etc. When they reached the homely Marla, they were stumped as to what to do. They didnt see anyone being commensurate to make a lady out of her. One instructor asked the other what she suggested. All the women could reply back was a drove of night games. She said this about one of the best players in the league. Also at the school, the ladies were taught how to sip not slurp tea, cross their legs appropriately, walk with grace, and balance a news on their head to promote a more graceful, feminine posture.As the movie continues, this so called womens league wasnt riping in any cyberspace and was threatened with closing down. This devastated the girls in the league. This league gave them something to speak of, something of their own, a sense of felicitate rather than just cooking and cleaning. In order to cargo deck the league continuing, the girls had to draw attention and draw a crowd. It started to put out into a circus. The girls had to do splits to make plays more interest, slid while the guys on the sidelines got a glance up their skirts, anything to make it more interesting and less threatening.At first the women were not given the respect they deserved for their hard work. Nobody believed that these housewives could play hard ball. in one case the girls proved themselves, the men and the rest of society got threatened and still didnt watch. Until the sport became a show, it wasnt approved of. The girls had fights with the game to make it more interesting. One contest was called Catch a foul, win a kiss. This helps to illustrate that women are objects to be competed for, possessed, and used (Johnsen).Once the women began to make a show of the sport, the bleachers filled. Headlines began to read things such as affair oven mitts for baseball mitts and Diamonds, a Womens lift out Friend. Women didnt receive their own league until it was the way the men wanted it. They werent to play competitively. It was to be more of a show. Women have gained only what men have been willing to grant they have interpreted nothing, they have only received (Beauvoir). This is because men fear competition from women. If they are playing baseball and working in the factories, therefore what is the male role? Every cleaning lady who goes into medicine or law robs them of a job (Beauvoir). The men were threatened to what else the women would begin to do.Hollywood threw out its romance scripts and started qualification movies about strong, independent females and it was discovered that women could actually excel at professional sports (Ebert). This is a phenomenal movie that shows the power of women. It gets women out of the house and into the work force. It gets them doing just as the men. This was just the start of the women getting out of the house. Once the men came back from war, the women fought to keep their league alive. Many of the women in and right(prenominal) o f the league went on to be doctors and lawyers. Women were suspension out of the house whether the men were realise for it or not. The first girls in the league now have the own severalise in the Baseball Hall of Fame. I believe that these women truly deserve this. whole works Citedhttp//www.rottentomatoes.com.review.snusr/ns-home/cgi-bin/ad/adq.cgi, Joe Brown, 1992http//wwwsuntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/1992/07/764762html, Ebert, 1992Johnson, Allan G. 1997. The Gender Knot Unraveling Our patriarchal Legacy. Philadelphia, PA TempleUniversity PressBeauvoir, Simone de. 1953. The entropy Sex. Trans. And ed.H.M. Parshley. New Yourk Alfred A. Knopf.Friedan, Betty. 1963. The Feninine Mystique. New YorkDell. (20th ann. Ed. Published by W.W. Norton, 1983.)A League of Their Own, 1992.