Saturday, August 31, 2019

Success of a Paint Company: Berger Paints

In 1971 Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited has started its journey in Bangladesh. The shareholders were Jenson & Nicholson (J & N), Duncan Macneil & Co. Limited and Dada Group. Duncan Macneil subsequently sold their shares to the majority shareholder J & N Group. The Dada Group’s share ultimately vested with the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh after the independence of the country in 1971. The name of the company was changed from J & N (Bangladesh) Limited to Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited on January 1, 1980. Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited (BPBL) is stated to be the market leader in Bangladesh and has a wide range of products such as Decorative Paints, Industrial Paints, Marine Paints, Color Bank, Textured Coatings, Heat Resistant Paints, Roofing Compounds, Wood Solutions, and Wood Adhesives. It gives a comprehensive and sustainable painting solution and providing the best customer service through Home Decor. BPBL’s corporate strategy is to build larger market share through providing quality and speedy service. It’s primary focus is to strengthen its current position by providing value added customer service. BPBL is committed to get highest consumer satisfaction. The main objective of this report is to gain overall practical knowledge about the internal communication techniques of Berger Paint Bangladesh Ltd. and corporate success evaluation and also recommend on the basis of business communication. Aim and Rational of the project: The objective of this project is to gain overall practical knowledge about the organization and analyze the communication techniques developed by the company. To be more specific, this project contains the following subjects: †¢Historical background of Berger Paint Bangladesh Ltd.  Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Organizational structure †¢BPBL’s internal communication structure †¢Tools used in the existing communication system †¢Positive aspects of the system being used and recommendations for improvement Significance of the Study: The significance of the study can be explained in many ways. From this project we will learn about the business communication practices followed by Berger Paint Bangladesh Ltd, the market leader in paint industry of Bangladesh. It will help us to enhance our knowledge about the relationship between different departments, how they communicate with each other and organizational environment. Methodology: The report will be based on both primary and secondary data. †¢Primary Data: It is obvious that the research will require a lot of primary data. Face-to-face interviews will be conducted with the manager of the BPBL. We have planed to supply them questionnaire to be filled out as well as read them out whenever needed and explain if any clarification is required. †¢Secondary Data: For secondary resources, we will use the web site of BPBL, product profile, and relevant journals by Berger Paint Bangladesh Ltd. For the organization part of the report, a lot of secondary resources will also be used. †¢Data Collection Method: We have decided to conduct personal interviews as data collection method. The questionnaire will be structured and includes both open and close-ended questions. †¢Questionnaire: For the survey purpose, we will prepare questionnaire which meet the objective of the project. It will include different issues and important factors regarding internal communication techniques. For the questionnaire we will use simple, direct and familiar words, so that the respondents understand it easily. †¢Data collection: We will conduct Face-to-face interviews with the manager of BPBL to collect the data. We will also collect the necessary data from company website, magazine etc. †¢Report Format: The report will contain mainly two parts. The organizational part shall give the idea about Berger Paint Bangladesh Ltd.’s historical background and Organizational structure. And the project part shall contain BPBL’s internal communication structure, tools used in the existing communication system, positive aspects of the system being used and recommendations for improvement and conclusion. Limitation of the Study: The collection of primary data is always a difficult thing because it is hard to ensure the authenticity of the data. Managers of the company may hide some information for the confidentiality. Time is also a limitation as we have to interview the manager, analyze the data and prepare project at a very short time. Despite of these limitations we will try our best to collect accurate and useful data through the survey so that we can generate quality results from the data analysis and give recommendation where it is necessary.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Course Assignments

Worksheet # I: Cost Classification Study Questions 1. Distinguish between direct and indirect costs. 2. Distinguish between prime cost and conversion costs. 3. The current assets sections of the balance sheets of three companies follow. Which company is a service company? Which is a merchandiser? Which is a manufacturer? How can you tell? X-TREME Cash†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. $2,500 Accounts Receivable 5,500 Inventory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 8,000 Prepaid Expenses†¦. 300 Total†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. $16,800 Y-NOT? ZESTO Cash†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. $3,000 Cash†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. $2,000 Accounts Receivable 6,000 Accounts Receivable†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5,000Prepaid Expenses†¦. 500 Materials Inventory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1,000 Total†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. $9,500 Work in process inventory 800 Finished goods inventory 4,000 Total†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. $12,800 4. Francis manufacturers, a manufacturer of wood doors and windows, has prepared the following list of accounts Advertising Assemblers wages Production supervisor’s salary Depreciation of machinery Factory utilities Lathe (machine for shaping wood) Operators wages Machinery repairs Office salaries Purchase of glue Purchase of screws and nails Purchase of pine Purchase of oak $36,000 84,200 21,400 9,200 55,600 6,400 22,600 113,800 1,600 800 99,000 250,000 There is no beginning or ending inventory. Calculate the following: (a) Direct material used (b) Direct labour cost (c) Factory overhead (d) (e) (f) Prime cost Conversion cost Production cost -1- 5. Compute cost of goods manufactured and cost of goods sold from the following amounts Direct materials inventory Work in process inventory Finished goods inventory Purchases of direct materials Direct labour Manufacturing overhead Beginning of Year $22,000 38,000 18,000 End of Year $26,000 30,000 23,000 75 ,000 82,000 39,000 6.Clyde’s Pets manufactures chewing bones for puppies. At the end of December 2008, his accounting records showed the following: Inventories Materials Work in process Finished goods Other information: Direct material purchases Plant janitorial service Sales salaries expense Delivery expense Sales revenue Beginning $13,500 0 0 $31,000 1,250 5,000 1,500 105,000 Ending $9,000 1,250 5,700 Utilities for plant Rent on plant Customer service hotline expense Direct labour $4,500 9,000 1,000 18,000 Requirements: i) ii) iii) Prepare a schedule of cost of goods manufactured for the year ended December 31, 2008Prepare an income statement for Clyde’s Pets for the year ended December 31, 2008 Given that the company manufactured 17,500 units, of its product in 2008, compute the company’s unit product cost for the year. -2- Online Discussion Questions (Kindly prepare these questions before each online session) 1. Papermaking Ltd. makes paper, which is cut and packed, before being transferred into the finished goods store. The paper is moved from department to department by forklift truck. Each pack of finished product contains one ream of paper.The paper is loaded onto wooden pallets before delivery to customers. The following cost information relates to Papermaking Ltd. for the period ended March 31, 2002. Pulp Clay Wrapping paper (used in packing department) Spare knives for cutting machine Cleaning rags for machines Royalty payments Making department wages to machine crew Cutting department wages to machine crew Packing department wages to packers Fork truck driver wages Factory foreman’s salary Wooden pallets Dispatch department wages Delivery vehicle drivers wages Sales manager’s salary Advertising costs Sales office staff wagesGeneral manager’s salary Production manager’s salary Maintenance costs 1 Administration salaries Electricity cost 2 Administrative office machine rental cost Sundry other costs: P roduction Administration Selling Distribution $100,000 40,000 3,500 800 500 10,000 38,000 26,000 20,000 8,000 11,000 3,600 17,000 9,600 17,500 16,500 18,500 30,000 21,500 60,000 45,000 18,000 1,000 33,000 42,000 11,000 16,000 1 Maintenance costs should be charged to the functions making use of the maintenance service as follows: production 80%; administration 3%; selling 3% and distribution 14%. Electricity cost should be charged to each functional area in the following proportions: production 75%; administration 5%; selling 5%; and distribution 15%. Required: (i) Prepare a cost summary for the period ended March 31, 2002, which shows sub-totals for, prime cost, production overhead, production cost, administration cost, selling cost and distribution cost. (ii) Prepare a summary profit and loss account for the period ended 31 March 2002 showing only total figures for each function, where the following additional information is available: (a) Units produced – 2,500 kilos (b) Un its sold – 2,000 kilos @ $300 per kilo c) No paper was in stock at the beginning of the period. -3- 2. Smooth Sounds manufactures and sells a new line of MP-3 players. Unfortunately, Smooth Sounds suffered serious fire damage at its home office. As a result, the accounting record for October were partially destroyed- and completely jumbled. Smooth Sounds has hired you to help figure out the missing pieces of the accounting puzzle. Work in process inventory, October 31. Finished goods inventory, October 1†¦. Direct labour in October†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Purchases of direct materials in October Work in process inventory, October 1†¦ Revenues in October†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..Accounts receivable, October 1†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Gross profit in October†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. $1,500 4,300 3,000 9,000 0 27,000 2,000 12,000 Accounts payable, October 1†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Direct materials used in October†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Accounts payable, October 31†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Accounts receivable, October 31†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Direct materials inventory, Oct. 31†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Manufacturing Overhead in October†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. $3,000 8,000 5,200 6,500 3,000 6,300 Required: Compute the following amounts i) Manufacturing costs ii) Cost of goods manufactured in October iii) Cost of goods sold in October iv) Beginning direct materials inventory v) Ending finished goods inventory 3.The table below shows monthly data collected on facilities maintenance department costs and on the number of patient-days serviced over the past year. Month January February March April May June July August September October November December (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Department Costs $37,000 $23,000 $37,000 $47,000 $33,000 $39,000 $32,000 $33,000 $17,000 $18,000 $22,000 $20,000 # Of patient-days 3,700 1,600 4,100 4,900 3,300 4,400 3,500 4,000 1,200 1,300 1,800 1 ,600 Determine the variable cost per patient-day and the fixed cost using the highlow method. What is the equation of the total mixed cost function?Prepare the scatter diagram, clearly showing any outliers. Using the line of best-fit, determine department’s fixed cost per month and the variable cost per patient-day. In view of the department’s cost behaviour pattern, which of the two methods appear more appropriate? Explain your answer. -4- Practice Questions (The following questions are to be used for self study sessions) 1. Inventoriable product costs: a) Include marketing costs and research and development costs b) Include the costs of direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead used to produce a product ) Include only the costs of direct materials and direct labour used to produce a product d) Both A and B are correct 2. Manufacturing overhead is a: a) Product cost b) Period cost c) Indirect cost d) Both A and C are correct 3. Direct materials: a) A re used to determine total inventoriable product costs b) Are used to determine total manufacturing overhead c) Cannot be separately and conveniently traced through the manufacturing process to finished goods inventory d) Must not become part of the finished product 4. a) b) c) d) Which of the following is least accurate about a manufacturing setting?Conversion costs refer to the costs applied to materials that convert it into a finished product. Direct labour and manufacturing overheads makes up conversion costs. When compared to the manufacturing setting, purchases and freight in are a part of inventoriable costs for a merchandiser under US GAAP. Inventoriable product costs are not recorded as assets until the product is sold. When ending finished goods inventory is subtracted from the sum of beginning finished goods inventory and cost of goods manufactured, the result is cost of goods sold 5.Cost of goods manufactured during 2006 is $240, WIP inventory on December 31, 2006 is $50 . WIP inventory during 2006 decreased 60%. Total manufacturing costs incurred during 2006 amount to: a) $190 b) $165 c) $290 d) $315 -5- 6. You are given the following for the production of office chairs by the company ‘Chairs and More† : Quantity produced 100 200 300 400 500 600 Total Fixed Costs (JMD$) 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 Variable cost per unit is $150. The production of 15,000 chairs will cost: a) $2,260,000 b) $1,500,000 c) $10,000 d) $25,000 7.Work in process inventory increased $20,000 during 2005. Cost of goods manufactured was $280,000, Total manufacturing costs incurred in 2005 are: a) $298,000 b) $262,000 c) $289,000 d) $300,000 8. Wright Company reports production costs for 2006 as follows: Direct materials used $375,000 Direct labour incurred $250,000 Manufacturing overhead incurred $400,000 Operating expenses $145,000 Wright’s period costs and product costs respectively for 2006 are: a) b) c) d) $145,000 and $1,025,000 $1,025,000 and $145,000 $545,000 and $975,000 $975,000 and $545,000 End of worksheet #1 -6-

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The Street Lawyer

RUNNING HEAD: THE STREET LAWYER The Street Lawyer Social Work 3040-01I Apr. 30, 2008 SUMMARY John Grisham’s The Street Lawyer tells the story of Michael Brock a married wealthy attorney who has it all. Michael, a graduate of Yale University, works at Drake & Sweeny, one of the top and well respected firms in Washington D. C. While there he is making the money and rushing relentlessly to the top of Drake & Sweeny. He is only one step away from an early partnership. Until one rainy winter afternoon at Drake & Sweeny. An angry homeless man who only wants to be called â€Å"Mister† holds Michael and eight other lawyers hostage in an office at Drake & Sweeny. â€Å"Mister† demands the tax records be brought to him. After the tax records arrive he orders Michael to tell him what each lawyer including Michael has made in earnings for the year and how much of their money is donated to charities and the homeless. After several hours the hostage stand off is over leaving one man dead and another reborn. Mister† is shot in the head by a sniper policeman as he opens the office door to receive the soup he wants delivered from a local shelter. â€Å"Mister’s† blood and bodily fluids cover Michael’s entire face since he is standing directly behind him. The police escort Michael to a small gym in the building where doctors examine him and he is able to shower. After his shower Michael returns home. The next morning he returns to work at Drake & Sweeny. After reading an article in the Post he learns more about â€Å"Mister† whose real name is DeVon Hardy. After paying a visit to Mordecia Green the director of the 14th Street Legal Clinic, where â€Å"Mister† was a client, Michael begins to rethink his career as an anti-trust lawyer for Drake & Sweeny and his life as well. Leaving Drake & Sweeny to become a street lawyer would have profound affect on his home life and marriage as well. After telling his wife he will take a job with less money and no benefits the couple separate and eventually file for divorce. Michael moves to a smaller apartment on the rough side of Washington D. C. nd begins working at the 14th Street Legal Law Clinic with Mordeci Green. While working there Michael is harboring a dark secret: a confidential file. A confidential file from the law offices of Drake & Sweeny which contains information about the illegal eviction of â€Å"Misterâ€Å" and the other homeless people. Now Drake & Sweeny know their file is missing and want it returned immediately no matter what. Even if it means Michael losing his lic ense to practice law. His former partners have become his enemies and Michael is now the most dangerous man on the streets of Washington D. C. EXAMINATION Populations-at risk are the homeless in John Grisham’s The Street Lawyer and the environment that which they live in are considered the social environment. Populations-at risk are defined as populations or groups of people who share some identifiable characteristics that places them at greater risk of social and economic deprivation and oppression than the general mainstream of society. The social environment involves the conditions, circumstances, and human interactions that encompasses human beings. People are dependent upon effective interactions with their environment in order to survive and thrive. The social environment includes the actual physical setting that society provides. This involves the type of home a person lives in, the type of work that is done, the amount of money available, and the laws and social rules by which people live. â€Å"Mister† and the other homeless who were illegal evicted from their makeshift apartments are to considered members of a social environment. In reference to the social environment the actual physical setting that society provided to the homeless were homeless shelters. But once the homeless shelters do not begin to taken in borders because they are over crowded the homeless are forced into the streets in hopes of finding a safe and warm place to stay for the night. Sleeping on park benches and makeshift warehouses are the only means of shelter available to them. Even if they are working at a job the wages are usually not enough to provide adequate shelter. Society tends to blame the homeless for their choice of life and for being homeless. But at times it not the fault of the homeless but the fault of the government. For example a working middle class family loses their home to foreclosure because of lay-offs and budget cuts at their jobs. With being laid off both lose their pension and benefits that came along with their jobs. Even if both parents would find another job paying minimum wage it would not be enough to pay the $1000. 00 monthly mortgage and other expenses. Therefore, those individuals cannot be held at fault for becoming homeless the fault lies with the budget cuts made by the federal government to their jobs. At other times the fault lies with the individual themselves for becoming homeless. For example a woman works as a nurse in a hospital becomes addicted to prescription drugs and is later fired from her job because of stealing the prescription drugs to which is addicted to. Since the prescription drugs are no longer available to her she becomes addicted to crack/cocaine because it is accessible to her. She files for unemployment until she can find another job but her unemployment checks are going to support her habit instead of paying her monthly rent. She is evicted and thrown into the streets where and begins prostitution to support her habit. Receiving a â€Å"fix† has become her main priority in life. In that particular situation the individual is the blame for their choice to become homeless. ELUDICATION John Grisham’s characters Michael Brock and Mordecia Green worked not only as attorneys for the homeless but also as social workers too. Throughout The Street Lawyer Michael and Mordecia counseled each individual to gain a knowledge of what their lives were before they became homeless and why they have become homeless. Most lawyers would not take the time find out if whether or not their client had a place to sleep or food to eat the night before. Many lawyers would not offer their services free of charge. Michael and Mordecia worked as lawyers as well as social workers. Each day Michael and Mordecia traveled to a local homeless shelter to interview potential clients and help them with whatever they needed. Most of their clients were generally homeless people or individuals who were laid off from their job recently. The two helped these individuals fill out government forms, obtain job applications, and sometimes a rehab center for those who were addicted to drugs and alcohol. At times some clients could not be helped but Michael and Mordecia provided their counseling service as a means of help. Some individuals only needed some to talk to about what was going on in their life at that time. He wants his readers to see the similarities between social workers and attorneys. His examples with Michael and Mordecia with their clients express key elements in the career of a social worker. EVALUATION/CONCLUSION The Street Lawyer by John Grisham conveys its readers to the unknown world of homelessness and the cause. He wants his readers to see the cruel dark side of humanity and how society views homelessness. By having the story take place in Washington D. C. , the capitol of the United States, a place where many would not believe crack houses are a block away from the White House. Homeless women, men, and children are forced to seek shelter anywhere when all the shelters in the city are full. These same people are usually victims of layoffs and budget cuts by Congress. Grisham wants his readers to see the reality of homelessness and that it can happen to anyone. One’s whole perspective on their life can change in an instance because of one individual or many. He gives thorough examples throughout his book about the day and life of a homeless person and their family. The struggles they face day to day not knowing if he or she will have something to eat or a place to sleep by night fall. He contributes to the study of social work by having his main characters act as counselors to the homeless, employment agencies and location of rehabs for those who are addicted to drugs and alcohol. The Street Lawyer is a learning tool in the world of social work for those who want to gain a better understanding of what a social worker does on a daily bases. One who enjoys helping others and making a difference in someone else’s life will definitely enjoy reading this book. After reading this book I now have a better understanding of homelessness and I will eventually use this book as learning tool while furthering my education in the study of social work. â€Å"

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Current Purchasing and Supply Chain Practices in E-procurement Essay

Current Purchasing and Supply Chain Practices in E-procurement - Essay Example Indeed as e-commerce continues to gain root courtesy of the developments realized in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) it seems every single sector is being transformed. E-procurement therefore involves the use of Electronic Data Interchange and Enterprise Resource Planning. It is basically facilitated through the use of various software applications which enhance the process of supplier management and complex auctions. The value chain process of e-procurement consists of e-tendering, indent management, e-auctioning, catalogue management, order notice, e-invoicing, e-payment and contract management. It basically involves the conventional supply chain processes which are enhanced through the use of information systems. In public sector organizations, e-procurement is becoming a common affair given its increased benefits. Some of the benefits realized through e-procurement include increased efficiency and cost savings. Indeed, these have always been major concern in govern ment contracting. Similarly, e-procurement improves the transparency of the procurement process. Conventional procurement is normally characterized by rampant corruption especially in the public sector. A supply chain network enables the distribution options for the procurement of both raw material and finished products. In this regard, the major aim of a supply chain network is to satisfy the needs of the consumer as soon as they appear. This is certainly an important component of e-procurement (Ageshin, 2001). It should be realized that e-procurement is not simply a process of making online purchases. It must provide an open and effective communication line with all the potential suppliers throughout the business process (Waters, 2007). Research and New trends Businesses are today compelled to adapt and reconfigure their IT systems, assets and business operations in order to meet the increasingly changing demands of the customers. There is a growing need to compress the long busin ess cycles and to differentiate from the increased competition (2007). In this respect, new trends in e-procurement are constantly adopted with the major aim of enhancing operations through efficiency, costs reduction and output maximization. The systems are facilitated through the adoption of new architectural styles. The e-procurement and purchasing process involves the following steps (Dolgui, Soa, & Zaikin, 2005). Purchase approval and supplier evaluation The e-procurement supply chain process normally begins by the demand or need of the material by a user. In this respect, a number of electronic documents are normally used. They include forecasts and customer orders, purchase requisitions, stock checks and material requirements. The process of purchase approval involves a number of steps and will normally depend on the size of the purchase and whether the client is making first time purchases. Depending on the size of the purchase, there can be a need for supplier evaluation wh ich begins with from the determination of the purchase need (Forrest, 2006). Bidding and supplier selection The selection of suppliers is actually one of the most important activities in this respect. In any case, any mistakes or errors at this time can be very damaging and long-lasting. Once all the bids are received and the negotiation process has occurred, the sourcing team will then select an appropriate supplier and the approval is then authorized through the purchase approval step (Foust, 2013). Purchase approval Once the supplier has been selected, purchasing grants an authority or approval to purchase the product or service. This is facilitated through the use of an electronic drafting of a purchase order (PO). This is also

DOMINION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

DOMINION - Essay Example Biblical texts have shown emphasis and influence on the comprehension of human beings and how we think of ourselves in reference to God our creator and the environment around us. The verse evaluates human dignity as well as privileges given to him by the Creator, human sexuality, women and men relationship, and man’s role in relation to the creation. It is here where the bible illustrate the dominion of man in reference to the world (Genesis 1: 28). This dominion is phrased such that human beings have the role to exploit the environment but to do it responsibly meaning; to use the available resources to help him but not misusing them (Culture and Bible 1995). The role also extends to naming the animals, monitoring their activities, and developing the nature of the world; this is because it defines the hierarchy of authority and power. In short, human beings play the role of the head of the house as far as the whole creation is concerned (Anderson, Bernhard 1975). Man has responsibility to govern and supervise the overall creation. This is because they have added features such as they are capable of differentiating between the wrong and right which gives man a basis of decision making. The added feature resulted from God’s images and likeness unlike the rest, and this brings about the aspect of

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Doctrine of Acte Clair in the Context of National Courts Research Paper

The Doctrine of Acte Clair in the Context of National Courts - Research Paper Example A national court can ask the CJ questions pertaining to the interpretation of the EU charter. It can also ask the CJ to give rulings on the interpretation of the Treaty and Acts of the EU institutions. The CJ can be asked questions on the validity of Acts of the EU institutions - not on the validity of the Treaty through, or be asked to give rulings on such Acts. In practice, as only the CJ can rule on the invalidity of EU law, any such question must be referred to it by the concerned national court. This function of the CJ is enshrined in the EU charter. Art 256(3) TFEU (Art 225(3)EC: Art 168(a) EEC) specifies the General court’s authority that it shall have the ‘†¦jurisdiction to hear and determine questions referred for a preliminary ruling under Art 267 TFEU, in specific areas†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Moreover, CJ can only interpret EU law. It cannot interpret national law nor pass comment on the compatibility of national law with EU law. A good example can be found in th e case of 6/64 Costa v ENEL [1964] ECR 585. If CJ is asked a question raising the compatibility of national law with EU law, it has the duty to reformulate the question into one just of EU law – see eg26/62 Van Gend en Loos [1963] ECR 1. In C221/89 ex p Factortame [1992] QB 680. Nevertheless, even though expressed in abstract terms, the CJ gives a clear ruling that UK law is incompatible with EU law. Additionally, the CJ can only rule on the interpretation of EU law, not on the application of it by the national court in the particular case. However, often the guidance given by the CJ is so specific that it equates to the application, for example as seen in C392/93 R v HM Treasury ex p BT[1996] ECR I 1631.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Project - Assignment Example The technological as well as development research course produces a quality level that the business gets competitiveness and differentiation in the structure, even though this demands, noteworthy but essential investments. 3 To study the system the analyst needs to do collect facts and all relevant information. The facts when expressed in quantitative form are termed as data. The success of this project is depended upon the accuracy of available data. Accurate information can be collected with help of certain methods/ techniques. These specific methods for finding information of the this system are; Interviews, Questionnaires, Record View and Observations. We shall use interviews since the information collected is quite accurate and reliable as we will clear and cross check the doubts there itself. This method also will help gap the areas of misunderstandings and help to discuss about the future problems. 5 Tactical planning and innovation are at present, essential elements of the aggressive and sustainability of a business. Conversely, framework situations demand the business to be structured to approval to a more and more complicated demand in an open structure, where the idea of quality is to be realized in all their dimensions as well as in continuous assessment. The transformation must be planned, according to the exhaustive investigation of the circumstances and the external and internal conditions that the organization functions. The innovation produces effectiveness and efficiency in the processes of business production; the information handling is essential. The technological as well as development research course produces a quality level that the business gets competitiveness and differentiation in the structure, even though this demands, noteworthy but essential investments. Currently, the system used is manual. It requires a lot of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Management and Organisational Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Management and Organisational Learning - Essay Example This is where the concept of learning organisation comes into the picture. That is, learning organisation facilitates continuous learning with the employees learning new things and perspectives, thus leading to the structured changing or transitioning of employees, departments and the organisations as a whole from a current state to a favourable future state. When this change shows positive results, organisations can extricate from tough situations and achieve success. A learning organization values challenges, promotes flexibility, innovation and creativity, treats mistakes as stepping stones of development and encourages individuals to think. Learning is carried out by implementing various practices. Some of the key practices are help people value the effects of their learning on their organizations, link individual performance with organizational performance, tie rewards to key measures of performance and importantly create structures and procedures that support the learning process. Thus, learning organisations or organisations which indulge in learning process will try to learn newer and optimal strategies to optimize the organisational functioning. Peter M Senge, an American scientist, is one of the profound business thinkers and author. He analyzed many organizations and its workings for many years at MIT and the resultant theories and concepts were brought out by Peter Senge in his 1990 book, The Fifth Discipline. In that book, he brought out many organizational theories particularly the ones related to leadership under the concept of ‘learning organization. According to Peter Senge (1990, p.3) learning organizations are, â€Å"Organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free,

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Los Angeles urban economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Los Angeles urban economy - Essay Example Riverside County’s main city is the city of Riverside. The city is located 53 miles eastwards of Los Angeles, in southeast California. The department of public works in the city of Riverside provides solid waste collection services in the city. The waste collection services were organized by this department through various policies (City of Riverside, 1). The local policy, over time, the city policy of waste management has been dynamic in its mode of operation. In 1992, the policy stipulated that trash collection was reduced to once per week from twice a week, but it now incorporates the collection of green wastes once a week. Over time the policy has changed to improve waste collection, in 1994 the municipal code required that all projects provide enough space and collect recyclable waste. Solid waste service, this division of the public works department was mandated to provide integral waste management services in a manner that is cost effective. The division was basically mandated to collect, dispose and recycle solid wastes from every resident (The Friday Flyer, 1). Source reduction, this program of the public work was charged with management of waste reduction thus managing waste in its all diversities. This was achieved by formulation of workshop that advised participants accordingly. The division has also encouraged its residents to recycle grass as a reduction strategy. This program is however conducted by placing of all trash in the recycling cart and trash was also placed in bags before loading to carts in instances that the cart is damaged; a contact number was given a public number through which the city council was contacted for replacement. The city authority sol bag tags at efficient prices of $2 at the city hall, these bags were used for purposes of filled trash carbs. This bag tags were each less than 40 gallons. Trash that was out of the carb

Friday, August 23, 2019

Computing Research Methodologies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Computing Research Methodologies - Essay Example The aim is to spread the knowledge about how the trainees can save themselves from any mishap. This paper presents the rationale for the development of this interactive simulation, the resources used in the development, the deadlines that should be followed in the implementation of this idea and it also discusses the potential usage of this innovative idea in the educational sector. Second life is a virtual world in which one can experience learning with the help of simulations. The users of second life interact and collaborate with each other by using avatars. These avatars act on the behalf of users in socializing and participating in individual and group events. This proposal is projected towards creating a facility in Second life in order to test the idea that interactive simulation can assist in health improvement and safety awareness among the trainee science teachers. For this purpose a virtual laboratory is built. The CoVASE technology is used for the development of this virtual laboratory. This virtual lab will teach the trainee science teachers how to take safety measures and how to improve their health by interacting with them through 3D visualization. It will develop a simulated atmosphere of real world incidents in a science laboratory for the trainee teachers. The trainees were given full control on the system and their responses and activities we re recorded. The trainees shared their experiences on virtual simulated environment that it was very interesting, informative and motivating for all of them. The trainees can get the required information about the training without any cost incurred. It does not require any additional expense to gain experience from virtual world and interactive simulations. It is an interesting activity to be performed and it does not cause boredom among the performers (Fan & Geelan, 2013). In this project my aim is to

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Family Expecations Essay Example for Free

Family Expecations Essay I have found that family expectations are both problematic as well as helpful as I have grown and matured.   My family’s expectations revolve around our shared histories and aspirations as well as their perceptions of what I might be successful at or enjoy in life.   On the other hand, my life outside of my family has developed to a point where I gain encouragement and confirmation about my abilities and projections from other sources, such as my peers, my work, and through socializing. My ultimate priorities are up to me and only I can determine whether or not I am meeting my expectations no matter what my family believes.   That being said, pressures and expectations from my family has helped me to identify certain paths that I might prove successful for me in the long term.   My family usually has my best intentions in mind when they discuss their expectations for me and that can be a comforting and confidence inspiring motivation.   Additionally, if I have doubts about meeting my expectations, my family is there to advise me on what they feel I should or should not be doing in a particular situation based on their wisdom and previous experiences. In contrast, I often feel that my family’s expectations for me are based around what they knew of me as a younger adult or child.   Instead of asking me about my current goals and projects, often times they will revert back to telling me what my dreams were as a kid, or even worse, what dreams they had for me when I was a kid.   I understand that they are trying to be optimistic and positive influences on me, but at the same time I have grown up outside of my family and have created new ideas and goals for my future; not the necessarily the future that they always have had envisioned for me. Prioritizing family expectations is a balancing act for me because I want to make my family proud while at the same time living life according to my own principles.   This can be a difficult terrain to traverse, but ultimately it leads to more open and honest discussions about the best way to live life.   In our family, these discussions can at times become heated, but they are always interesting and we come out of them with newfound respect and hopes for the future. I have found that sometimes not living up to family expectations has been the most fruitful decisions I have personally made in my life.   Making my own choices and following my dreams in spite of my family’s expectations has paid off.   My family is proud of me for having the courage and the ambition to follow through on what I believe in.   If that is in fact their ultimate expectation for me, then I have found the balance necessary to surpass those expectations in the face of all obstacles.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Vikings Rise and Fall of the Norse Sea Kings by Poertner Rudolf Essay Example for Free

The Vikings Rise and Fall of the Norse Sea Kings by Poertner Rudolf Essay The book brings to life the vital, expanding Norse civilization that dominated the western world between 800 and 1100 A.D.   During the late 800s, Harald Fairhair was trying to unite Norway under his rule.   Before he came to power, chieftains ruled over different areas of what is now Norway.   There were many people who disagreed with Harald and many battles ensued where the chieftains lost.   Under Harald, chieftains had to give up their titles.   The forced unification of Norway threatened their hereditary rights and burdened them with taxes (Poertner 54).   People who would not stand for this fled Norway and settled on islands off the coast of Norway and invaded Norway.   The Vikings left Scandinavia as a result of a population growth and a general famine in Europe, farmland began to become scarce.   Hearing that Iceland had good land, the people left.   Although many parts of the island were not habitable due to volcanoes and ice fields, there were areas that had many attractive qualities.   These qualities made coming to Iceland an easy decision to a lot of people.   By 930 all the good land was occupied and the population of Iceland was about 30,000 (Poertner 55). This leads us to the settlement of Greenland.   After being banished from Norway, and then Iceland for murders he committed. Erik the Red decided to search for land in the west.   He had already heard stories of what would later be called Greenland so he knew it was out there.   He spent three years there and lived by hunting and fishing.   When he went back to Iceland he told everyone about the place he named Greenland which had good pasture land and good hunting. In the year 986 he and twenty-five shiploads of settlers set sail for Greenland.   Only fourteen ships arrived safely on Greenland due to storms at sea. Within a year or so after the settlers came to Greenland, the first known sighting of America was made by a European.   Bjarni Herjolfsson was sailing from Iceland to Greenland when he was blown off course, within sight of America.   He saw three places but did not stop anywhere until he got to Greenland.   Erik the Reds son, Leif Eriksson eventually bought Bjarnis ship and sailed in search of the land that Bjarni had seen.   The first place Leif stopped at was flat and stony.   He called Helluland. The second place he stopped at was a wooded area he called Markland.   The third place was the one place he stayed, calling it Vinland.   He was very pleased with it and told of a land where rivers overflowed with salmon, the grass did not wither in the frostless winter, and there was an enormous amount of timber, something that was lacking in both Greenland and Iceland.   After spending a winter in Vinland, Leif and his crew return to Greenland where they tell of their exploration loaded down with timber and grapes (Poertner 60). Leifs brother Thorvald made the next journey to Vinland with a crew of thirty.   He is the first European known to have met a native.   The explorers killed eight natives whose people later attack the explorers and Thorvald was killed in the attack.   The explorers left.   Thorfinn Karlsefni then went to Vinland with his wife, Gudrid,   and others, hoping to make a permanent settlement. That ended the settlements in Vinland.   The skirmishes with the natives may have made the Vikings feel threatened.   The settlements of Greenland also died out, but for many more reasons.   The Little Ice Age began and once fertile land turned to ice, and what soil that did not turn to ice eventually just gave out.   The cattle and crops began to waste away.   There was also competition with the Eskimos for marine game.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For historian buffs this book is excellent and easy to follow.   The book was up to date for that time and I enjoyed the book very much.   The Author is Scandinavian or German and the book was translated into English. I tried to find information on the author but was unsuccessful in the time I had.   I recommend this book to any Viking or Norse buff.

Community Development And Health Inequalities Health And Social Care Essay

Community Development And Health Inequalities Health And Social Care Essay To understand the role of community development as a potential strategy for addressing health inequalities, this essay aims to provide a discussion of the extent of health inequalities in the population in the UK. The nature and scale of these issues, the different causes of the indifferences, it will also look at how community development will work and how it could help contribute to the policy goal to reduce the health divide. It will look at the different issues concerning such a project and whether it will prove successful. Building on from the idea of health inequalities being linked to social class, this section illustrates other rationalisations as to this difference and some clarification as to why this might be. Health inequalities by and large are calculated by socio-economic groups however there maybe other explanations for these differences. There are reasons to believe ethnicity make a differences to health inequalities, it is stated in the Health Inequalities report 2008-9 that in April 2001 Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women reported the highest rates of both poor health and limiting long term illnesses whereas the Chinese reported the lowest. This is an alternative to the explanation of the socio-economic difference; nevertheless there are also other justifications. There are also claims that there are gender inequalities which exist The Mens Health Forum argue that mens life expectancy is more severely affected by deprivation than that of women (House of Common 2009), men are more like ly to commit suicide, suffer from obesity and twice as likely to be diagnosed with and die of cancer. There is also speculation that there is health inequalities between the young and old as the old receive poorer treatment and have less access to certain procedures found in the 2008-9 Health Inequalities report. There are also those who are suffering from physical and mental impairments with poorer health outcomes than other parts of society therefore they are more likely to suffer from terminal illnesses and coronary heart disease (House of Common 2009). The report has also found that health outcomes also vary according to geographical area thus those living in a deprived area are more likely to suffer from worse health problems than those in a more affluent area. To further understand health inequalities this section explores the causes of these, such as access to healthcare (House of Commons 2009). There are a plethora of causes why individuals can not get access to the necessary health care and treatment. The most compelling concern is about access related to age-related inequalities (House of Commons 2009). There are however arguments refuting this, there are other mitigating factors. There are a wide spectrum of lifestyle choices which further contribute to the inequalities in the populace, included amongst these are; smoking, nutrition, exercise and weight (House of Commons 2009). Individuals who are over-weight or given to unhealthy habits such as excessive drinking and smoking may display an increased reluctance to access medical treatment, resulting in a deterioration of health and a widening chasm of health inequalities. It is argued that the lifestyle factors which lead to health inequalities have an underlying socio-economic origin. It is purported that; causes of health inequalities reflect what are frequently referred to as the underlying causes-income, socio-economic group, employment status and educational attainment (House of Commons 2009). There is a correlation between education and income in relation to the health inequalities. The lower down in the socio-economic hierarchy you are, the higher the probability of health inequalities. There is also a widening gap between poverty and housing according to the Heath Inequalities report (2009), those of the low socio-economic group are more likely to have a substantial income therefore they are more likely to live in poor housing which in effect leaves them vulnerable to illnesses such as asthma due to dampness. There are many different aspects which maybe the cause of health inequalities in the population however there are disagreements with som e of these findings such as the link between socio-economic inequalities and health inequalities (House of Commons 2009). According to a recent publication in Health Economics there is not substantial evidence to say there is an association between socio-economic inequalities and health inequalities. There are no direct links but it is assumed that this is a factor in health inequalities and there is not much that can be done about this, however lifestyle factors play a big role in health inequalities in the population which can be helped to improve these inequalities. Community development is a way forward, this is one way in which health inequalities can be reduced in the population in the UK. Community development is a set up where communities can amplify their power and efficiency to improve community life, by getting people to recognise and develop their ability and potential and organise themselves to respond to problems and needs which they share (Scottish Community development Centre 2010). This would mean the community is in control they are able to participate in public decision making and governances (Community development Foundation 2009) as a result they are able to improve their environment for the better which gives them better control in the long run. By using the bottom-up meets top-down approach through capacity building the community members are being used to improve the health inequalities of the surrounding areas. In doing so the communities are being empowered as well as individuals being self empowered consequently the commun ity are more likely to respond than they are if a stranger such as a health professional came in and told the community what they are doing wrong and what needs to be done they have shared values and norms, mutual although not necessarily equal influence, common interests, and commitment to meeting shared needs (1998). Through this approach communities identify and build on strengths, resources, and relationships that exist within communities of identity to address their communal health concerns (1998), and do not feel threatened or belittled by health professionals and they are taking the initiative to recognise what they themselves are doing wrong or lacking and how this can be made better. Community development means there is not a victim blame approach so no one is saying a person is obese due to their eating habits and lack of exercise; it is giving the communities the opportunity to voice their opinions as well as giving health professionals the chance to build rapport with the community. Building on from that, the Scottish Community development Centre (2010) have found that Community development allows communities to plan and have positive prospects for the future as well as creating wealth and giving every member of the community access to its benefits. This would help reduce health inequalities significantly, the community can come together and feel as one and take care of one another which facilitates a safe environment. Through this people are able to develop their skills, reduce isolation by involving everyone as well as creating social networks and building relationships characterized by trust, cooperation and mutual commitment and mediating (1998) with other communities and agencies that affect their community. Community development can prove to be very successful, as an individual a person can be deprived, isolated, intimidated whereas part of a community a person can be rest assured there will always be others, they benefit from community health and feel par t of a community by a sense of identification and emotional connection to other members (1998), working together to reduce health inequalities and taking control to help maintain their achievements. It is hard to measure the success of community development as this would have to be looked at case by case however there are success stories such as the March 2010 Rural Community Programme in the Northwest (Northwest Regional Development Agency 2010). The Northwest have strengthened their rural communities and in 3 years have resulted in 57 social enterprises being supported across a range of services including health (Northwest Regional Development Agency 2010). By empowering the community they have made a huge accomplishment, together they have reduced health inequalities through providing services therefore there is ease of access. This is a huge success for community development; this evidence shows that community development strategies can be used to help reduce health inequalities. Community development can be triumphant; by setting up projects in different communities the government can reduce health inequalities in doing so they are reducing numbers of inequalities of health in the population. This can help the NHS; if there is less health problems there will be less expenditure in the NHS and the government save money which they invest in the NHS to help improve their services. Community development allows capacity building for those communities with lack of education and skills this could be life changing as it allows them to build on their own capacities and improve their lives. Communities come together and become a family. Communities are empowered and as a result voice their opinions and help to decide on policies that put in place, Councils provide local leadership. They know their patch, they bring local knowledge and can help bring people together to breakdown the silos that bedevil public bodies (Local Government 2010) this way theses policies are m ore likely to be successful as they are from the community therefore they are more relevant and money is not wasted in making policies and having to make changes so they meet the needs of communities. Communities learn how to work with others and build relationships and partnerships with other communities and institutions primary care trusts, voluntary sector bodies and local businesses are proving key partners for many of the projects (Local Government 2010). This helps with funding as there is sponsorship coming from different places rather than just from government making it easier on them. With funding from outside deprived communities could become wealthier and the widening gap between the socio-economic groups would decrease and there would be significant improvements in the health inequalities in communities. However there is a lack of evidence in some community development projects there is a well recognised gap between research findings and the implementation of evidence based prevention strategies in community settings (McGinnis and Foege, 2000). If there is no evidence of success within community development projects the government will be reluctant to invest money into the project which would discourage communities from taking part, which inevitably means the community development strategy will prove to be ineffective. If this were the case then health inequalities would not be resolved and communities will still be deprived. There is also the finance side of this strategy; a project like this can be expensive; if government feel its not cost effective there would be limited or no funding available. As this would be new the community and there is no guarantee it will be victorious the community will be disinclined to invest there time or money in the project. Even if there were fundi ng available there is always the chance that communities will chose not to take part, there will also be communities where only part of the community want to get involved therefore would not be as beneficial as possible. There is a chance these strategies may not meet community needs (Green and Mercer, 2001). If a community development strategy is set up in place but does not meet the communities need it would a waste of time and money. Community development needs to be developed around the members of the community, if the project is too multifaceted for the members of the community they will not want to part take or findings could be misleading therefore the project will fail the low level of individual participation rates in studies that recruited from a representative targeted population raises questions about generalisability (, 2010). There would be insufficient research and findings can be misrepresented. The programme needs to be designed around the community and their capabilities. Another issue could be inadequate resources whether that is down to funding or geographical area and such, without resources the community development would be futile. To conclude, this essay has analysed four key ideas, Firstly it has discussed the extent of health inequalities in the population, the nature and scale of these inequalities. Secondly it has discussed some of the causes for these health inequalities. The third area was the community development and its potential as a strategy to reduce health inequalities. Finally this essay discussed the how community development would make a useful contribution to the policy goal to reduce the health divide. The idea of community development sounds good, many communities would benefit from such projects, this would help change many health inequalities and recent health issues wouldnt be such an issue. There would not so much pressure on the government to do put provisions in place to reduce health problems such as obesity. If there was a community development project based around obesity, people would learn about the benefits of eating healthy and exercising and how to prepare healthy nutritious food on a budget. This would save the NHS millions if the number of obesity related treatments were reduced significantly. Evidence illustrates community development would be a huge success in reducing health inequalities and improving communities. In relation to community development it can be seen that projects can be effective however based on the evidence this not necessarily cost effective, there are no guarantees and even if there is funding there is no assurance the community development will be maintained. There are too many risks involved the situation would have to be assessed very carefully and a lot of planning would have to go into the project. This is not ideal for all aspects of health inequalities; there is also the issue of insufficient findings or misleading results. Unless there is a big chance of success there is no use of wasting time and resources.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Moor in Othello Essay -- Othello essays

The Moor in Othello  Ã‚        Ã‚   Who can resist empathizing with the unfortunate protagonist in William Shakespeare’s Othello? He is so noble, and yet so victimized by the cunning Iago.    Is it his â€Å"gullibility† which leads to his downfall? Morton W. Bloomfield and Robert C. Elliott   in Great Plays: Sophocles to Brecht posit the â€Å"lack of insight† of the hero as the cause of his tragic fall:    Othello’s lack of insight, cunningly played upon by Iago, leads to his downfall. And as the full enormity of his deed dawns upon him in the great scene of tragic self-revelation at the end, the audience may perhaps experience catharsis, that purgation of the soul brought about by an almost unbearable pity for him and his victims, and by terror at what human nature is capable of and what pitfalls await us in life. Throughout the play, the audience posses the information which Iago's victim does not have; the viewers know all along what Othello does not know. From that omniscient view, they look upon this tortured human being with a strong sense of the irony and tragedy of his position.   (39)    From the text of the play a number of clues can be gleaned which round out the description of the general. In William Shakespeare: The Tragedies, Paul A. Jorgensen describes the general in Othello:    Though scarcely the â€Å"barbarian† (1.3.353) he is called, the Moor is emphatically black, probably rough, even fearsome, in appearance, and a foreign mercenary from Mauritania in refined Venice. Though of royal blood, since the age of seven he had a restrictive, painful life, being sold into slavery and spending most of his life in â€Å"the tented field† (1.3.85). His â€Å"occupation† (3.3.357), to a degree found in no other Shakes... his life next to the corpse of Desdemona; for he â€Å"Like the base Judean, threw a pearl away / Richer than all his tribe [. . .] .† He dies a noble death, just as he has lived a noble life. Michael Cassio’s evaluation of his end is our evaluation: â€Å"This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon; / For he was great of heart.†       WORKS CITED    Bloomfield, Morton W. and Robert C. Elliott, ed. Great Plays: Sophocles to Brecht. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965.    Coles, Blanche. Shakespeare’s Four Giants. Rindge, New Hampshire: Richard Smith Publisher, 1957.    Jorgensen, Paul A. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985.    Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. No line nos.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Apple iPod from Business Perspective Essay examples -- mp3 digital mus

Technology has changed in the terms of portable music and with the invention of the Apple iPod in 2001, the ease and accessibility to download and listen to music has never been easier. Apple has developed a device that weighs no more than 6.2 ounces (and as few as 3.6 ounces) and can hold up to 10,000 songs. Despite the weak market overall, the market for digital media is undeniably hot and barring a consumer spending meltdown, it should stay that way. In light of current computer market conditions, Apple is wise to leverage a moderately priced consumer product like iPod to generate revenue. The iPod is an excellent opportunity to drive an additional revenue stream. Despite current global economic conditions, information technology is forecast to grow significantly over the next several years. Importantly, many experts believe that IT innovations like the iPod will particularly help drive consumers to electronic stores to purchase ground-breaking technologies due to the cost. Being in business for almost 30 years, Apple Computers started with two friends in high school; considered outsiders because of their love of electronics. Steven Wozniak â€Å"had been dabbling in computer-design for some time when, in 1976, he designed what would become the Apple I.† His friend, Steven Jobs, â€Å"who had an eye for the future, insisted that he and Wozniak try to sell the machine, and on April 1, 1976, Apple Computer was born.† ( It was not until the Apple II was introduced at a tradeshow in 1977 that the business started to take off. One of the most recent products developed by Apple which has become very successful has been the iPod. The iPod is a slick, tiny device that allows users to download songs from a specific website and this unit â€Å"holds† the songs in which they can be played at any time. The iPod is thought of as a handheld jukebox. It has not been any easy success ride for this product. First launched in October 2001, at a cost of $399, many skeptics were uncertain that this product would become an item that would be found in homes. The concern was the fact was that â€Å"only Macintosh users, less than a twentieth of the marketplace, could use it.† ( Strictly for personal entertainment, this product has recently been remodeled to allow holding more songs and now is facing stric... ... when a consumer's income goes up, consumers will buy a great deal more of that good. Very low price elasticity implies just the opposite, that changes in a consumer’s income have little influence on demand. The demand for the iPod continues to grow despite consumer’s income and selling price. This is a hot product that is receiving great word of mouth exposure and sales will continue to sky rocket. References

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Three Stikes Law :: essays research papers

Is the â€Å"Three Strikes and You’re Out† law cruel and unusual punishment? The purpose of my research paper is to analize how the â€Å"Three Strikes Law† helps to support our Constitution or violates it. I will discuss where the law came from and why we have it. I will also write about the positive and negative aspects of the law as a whole. I hope to be able to analize the spirit of the law versus the letter of the law as it relates to this subject. â€Å"In 1994 California voters approved a ballot initiative known as "Three Strikes and You're Out." Basically what it means is that people who are convicted of three felonies may end up facing life in prison.† There are some limitations though on how this law is executed. Not any felony constitutes a strike. For the first and second strikes only serious and violent felonies can count as a strike. Also some juvinille crimes can count. For the third strike any felony can be the final blow. While for the first two strikes it takes crimes like rape, kiddnapping, and robbery; the third strike can be a crime as simple as carring brass knuckles. This law â€Å"was enacted in 1994 after Polly Klaas was kidnapped from a slumber party in her home and murderedby Richard Allen Davis, who had two prior kidnapping convictions. The jury recommended that Davis be sentenced to death, and the judge imposed that sentence.† â€Å"On March 7, 1994, Governor Wilson signed into law AB 971 (Ch 12/94, Jones) referred to as the Three Strikes and You're Out criminal sentencing measure. In November, the voters reaffirmed the measure by overwhelmingly approving Proposition 184, an initiative that is essentially identical to Chapter 12. The measure is the most significant change to the state criminal justice system in more than a generation.† Govenor Wilson passed this law as part of his goal to crack down on repeat offenders and dangerous felons. The case of Richard Allen Davis was the prime example of how the law could be effective.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Media And Democracy

?Media democracy is a set of ideas advocating reforming the mass media, strengthening public service broadcasting, and developing and participating in alternative media and citizen journalism. The stated purpose for doing so is to create a mass media system that informs and empowers all members of society, and enhances democratic values. It is a liberal-democratic approach to media studies that advocates the reformation of the mass media with an emphasis on public service broadcasting and audience participation, through the use of citizen journalism and alternative media channels.A media democracy focuses on using information technologies to both empower individual citizens and promote democratic ideals through the spread of information. [1] Additionally, the media system itself should be democratic in its own construction [2] shying away from private ownership or intense regulation. Media democracy entails that media should be used to promote democracy[3] as well as the conviction t hat media should be democratic itself;[4] media ownership concentration is not democratic and cannot serve to promote democracy and therefore must be examined critically.[5] The concept, and a social movement promoting it, have grown as a response to the increased corporate domination of mass media and the perceived shrinking of the marketplace of ideas. The term also refers to a modern social movement evident in countries all over the world which attempts to make mainstream media more accountable to the publics they serve and to create more democratic alternatives The concept of a media democracy follows in response to the deregulation of broadcast markets and the concentration of mass media ownership. In their book Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, authors Edward S.Herman and Noam Chomsky outline the propaganda model of media, which states that the private interests in control of media outlets will shape news and information before it is disseminated to the public through the use of five information filters. [6] In this way, the construction of the mass media as a for-profit enterprise behaves in a way that runs counter to the democratic ideals of a free press. Media democracy advocates that corporate ownership and commercial pressures influence media content, sharply limiting the range of news, opinions, and entertainment citizens receive.Consequently, they call for a more equal distribution of economic, social, cultural, and information capital, which would lead to a more informed citizenry, as well as a more enlightened, representative political discourse. A media democracy advocates: Replacing the current libertarian media model[clarification needed] with one that operates democratically, rather than for profit Strengthening public service broadcasting Incorporating the use of alternative media into the larger discourse Increasing the role of citizen journalism Turning a passive audience into active participantsUsing the mas s media to promote democratic ideals The competitive structure of the mass media landscape stands in opposition to democratic ideals since the competition of the marketplace effects how stories are framed and transmitted to the public. This can â€Å"hamper the ability of the democratic system to solve internal social problems as well as international conflicts in an optimal way. â€Å"[7] Media democracy, however, is grounded in creating a mass media system that favours a diversity of voices and opinions over ownership or consolidation, in an effort to eliminate bias in coverage.This, in turn, leads to the informed public debate necessary for a democratic state. [8] The ability to comprehend and scrutinize the connection between press and democracy is important because media has the power to tell a society’s stories and thereby influence thinking, beliefs and behaviour. [9] The concept of â€Å"democratizing the media† has no real meaning within the terms of politic al discourse in Western society. Contents [hide] 1 Media ownership concentration 2 Media democracy movement 3 Feminism and media democracy 4 Internet media democracy 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 8. 1 Books 9 External links9. 1 Journals and periodicals 9. 2 Other Media ownership concentration[edit] A key idea of media democracy is that the concentration of media ownership in recent decades in the hands of a few corporations and conglomerates has led to a narrowing of the range of voices and opinions being expressed in the mass media; to an increase in the commercialization of news and information; to a hollowing out of the news media’s ability to conduct investigative reporting and act as the public watchdog; and to an increase of emphasis on the bottom line, which prioritizes infotainment and celebrity news over informative discourse.Cultural studies have investigated changes in the increasing tendency of modern mass media in the field of politics to blur and confuse the boundaries between journalism, entertainment, public relations and advertising. [10] A diverse range of information providers is necessary so that viewers, readers and listeners receive a broad spectrum of information from varying sources that is not tightly controlled, biased and filtered. [11] Access to different sources of information prevents deliberate attempts at misinformation and allows the public to make their own judgments and form their own opinions.[12] This is critical as individuals must be in a position to decide and act autonomously for there to be a functioning democracy. [13] The last several decades have seen an increased concentration of media ownership by large private entities. In the United States, these organizations are known as the Big Six. [14] They include: General Electric, Walt Disney Co. , News Corporation, Time Warner, Viacom, and CBS Corporation. A similar approach has been taken in Canada, where most media outlets are owned by n ational conglomerates.This has led to a reduction in the number of voices and opinions communicated to the public; to an increase in the commercialization of news and information; a reduction in investigative reporting; and an emphasis on infotainment and profitability over informative public discourse. The concentration of media outlets has been encouraged by government deregulation and neoliberal trade policies. In the United States, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 removed most of the media ownership rules that were previously put in place. This led to a massive consolidation of the telecommunications industry. Over 4,000 radio stationswere bought out, and minority ownership in TV stations dropped to its lowest point since 1990, when the federal government began tracking the data. Media democracy movement[edit] Several activist groups have formed on both local and national levels in the United States and Canada in response to the convergence of media ownership. Their aim is to spread awareness about the lack of diversity in the media landscape, and direct the public to alternative media. Additionally, these groups press for political solutions to the FCC in the United States and the CRTC in Canada to â€Å"oppose any further media consolidation.† [15] In the United States, the non-profit Media Access Project is a public interest law firm that advocates media democracy by â€Å"protect[ing] freedom of expression, promote[ing] universal and equitable access to media outlets and telecommunications services, and encourag[ing] vibrant public discourse on critical issues facing our society. â€Å"[16] The group has raised numerous concerns with the neoloiberalization of media in the United States in recent years, particularly with regards to media ownership, net neutrality laws, and access to the wireless spectrum.In Canada, is a similar group that promotes media democracy by encouraging open communication systems through online campaigns, events, and workshops. In particular, the group's â€Å"Stop The Meter† campaign to petition against proposed usage-based billing was the largest online appeal in Canadian history. [17] Feminism and media democracy[edit] Though the model aims to democratize the opinions expressed within the mass media as well as the ownership of media entities themselves, feminist media theory argues that the media cannot be considered truly inclusive or democratic insofar as they rely on the masculine concepts of impartiality and objectivity.[18] Creating a more inclusive and democratic media would require reconceptualizing how we define the news and its principles. [18] According to some feminist media theorists, news is like fictional genres that impose order and interpretation on its materials by means of narrative. [19] Consequently, the news narrative put forward presents only one angle of a much wider picture. [19]It is argued that the distinction between public and private informatio n that underpins how we define valuable  or appropriate news content is also a gendered concept. [19] The feminist argument follows that the systematic subversion of private or subjective information excludes women's voices from the popular discourse. [19] Further to this point, feminist media theorists argue there is an assumed sense of equality or equalness implicit in the definition of the public that ignores important differences between genders in terms of their perspectives.So while media democracy in practice as alternative or citizen journalism may allow for greater diversity, these theorists argue that women's voices are framed within a masculine structure of objectivity and rationalist thinking. [20] Despite this criticism there is an acceptance among some theorists that the blurring of public and private information with the introduction of some new alternative forms of media production (as well as the increase in opportunities for interaction and user-generated content ) may signal a positive shift towards a more democratic and inclusive media democracy.[21] Some forms of media democracy in practice (as citizen or alternative journalism) are challenging journalism's central tenants (objectivity and impartiality) by rejecting the idea that it is possible to tell a narrative without bias and, more to the point, that it is socially or morally preferable. [22]Internet media democracy[edit] The World Wide Web, and in particular Web 2.0, is seen as a powerful medium for facilitating the growth of a media democracy as it offers participants,† a potential voice, a platform, and access to the means of production. â€Å"[23] Because the web allows for each person to share information instantly with few barriers to entry across a common infrastructure, it is often held up as an example of the potential power of a media democracy. The use of digital social networking technologies to promote political dissent and reform lends credibility to the media de mocracy model.This is apparent in the widespread protests in the Middle East and North Africa known as the Arab Spring where social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube allowed citizens to quickly connect with one another, exchange information, and organize protests against their governments. While social media cannot solely be credited with the success of these protests, the technologies played an important role in instilling change in Tunisia,[24][25] Egypt,[26][27] and Libya.These acts show a population can be informed through alternative  media channels, and can adjust its behaviour accordingly. Criticism[edit] Critics of media democracy note that in order for the system to function properly, it assumes each member of society to be an educated and active participant in the creation of media and exchange of information. In countries with a high illiteracy rate, for example, it would be next to impossible for average citizens to take part and fully engage with media, and adjust their behaviour accordingly in society.[28] Instead of promoting democratic ideals, this would in turn fracture society into an upper-class that actively participates in creating the media, and a lower-class that only consumes it, leaving individuals open to the manipulation of information or media bias. This is not far from Nancy Fraser’s critique of the Habermasian public sphere, with regards to the bracketing of personal inequalities. [29] There is also a problem when trying to blend the role of journalists and traditional journalism within the scope of a media democracy.Although many media outlets are privately owned entities, the journalists whom they employ are subject to intense training, as well as a strict code of ethics when reporting news and information to the public. Because a media democracy relies heavily on public journalism, alternative media, and citizen engagement, there is the potential that all information exchanged be treated as equal by the p ublic. Not only would this negatively effect an individual's agency in a democratic society, but run counter to the notion of a free press that serves to inform the public.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Developing Strategic Management and Leadership

Assignment on Developing Strategic Management and Leadership Skills Unit 1 Edexcel BTEC level 2 Extended Diploma in strategic Management and Leadership (QCF) Assignment Topics AC(1. 1)Explain the link between strategic management and leadership. AC(1. 2)Analyze the impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decision. AC(1. 3)Evaluate how leadership styles can be adapted to different situations. AC(2. 1)Review the impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organizational strategic. AC(2. )Create a leadership strategic that supports organizational direction AC(3. 1)Use appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements. AC(3. 2)Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership. AC(4. 1)Plan the developing of leadership skills for a specific requirement. AC(4. 2)Report on the usefulness of methods used to plan the development of leadership skills. Note: The Chosen Organization for the Assignment is TESCO. [pic] Tesco is a global grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt, United Kingdom.It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (after Wal-Mart and Carrefour) and the second-largest measured by profits (after Wal-Mart). It has stores in 14 countries across Asia, Europe and North America and is the grocery market leader in the UK (where it has a market share of around 30%), Malaysia, the Republic of Ireland and Thailand. The company was founded by Jack Cohen in 1919 and opened its first store in 1929 in Burnt Oak, Edgware, and Middlesex. The Tesco name first appeared after Cohen purchased a shipment of tea from T. E.Stockwell and combined those initials with the first two letters of his surname. Originally a UK-focused grocery retailer, Tesco has diversified both geographically and into areas such as the retailing of books, clothing, electronics, furniture, petrol and software; financial services; telecoms and internet services; DVD rental; and music down loads. Tesco is chosen for the assignment due to certain reasons. Tesco is one of Britain’s fastest-growing and most innovative retailers, recognized as one of the best companies to work for in the UK. Tesco gives their employees clear objectives and expectations.At the same time, they also allowed more freedom for individual initiative than most other retailers, as they believe that it is ultimately this sort of personal touch that can make all the difference to their customers. [Source: Tesco Website: http://www. tesco. com] Table of Contents |Task |Topic |Page | |AC(1. 1) |Explain the link between strategic management and leadership. |5 | |AC(1. 2) |Analyze the impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decision. 7 | |AC(1. 3) |Evaluate how leadership styles can be adapted to different situations. |9 | |AC(2. 1) |Review the impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organizational |10 | | |strategic. | | |AC(2. 2) |Create a leadership strategic that supports organizational direction. |13 | |AC(3. 1) |Use appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements. |14 | |AC(3. 2) |Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership. 17 | |AC(4. 1) |Plan the developing of leadership skills for a specific requirement. |19 | |AC(4. 2) |Report on the usefulness of methods used to plan the development of leadership skills. |21 | |- |Reference |22 | |- |Bibliography |22 | AC(1. 1): Explain the link between strategic management and leadership.To explain the link between strategic management and leadership we should have a clear understanding of what these two terms actually mean. After understanding these two terms we can easily explain the link between them. Strategic Management: According to Barratt and Mottershead (2000), strategy is described as the way of achieving our objectives. Strategy enables us to ensure that all our work and things we do every day are going to help us in the long term inte rests of the organization. Strategic Management is the process of establishing and maintaining good strategies.Making and defining strategy is not enough, you will have to work out a plan for implementing that strategy in its true spirit. Good strategic management is plays a key role in approaching business opportunities and challenges. Leadership: There are different ways of describing leadership so it is very difficult to provide a single definition that fulfills the task. As Brindley and Buckley (2004) argued that, â€Å"Leadership has been identified as the process by which individual and group activities are influenced towards organizational goals†. The same thing is narrated in Business ManagementStudy Manual compiled by The Association of Business Executives (2007). They are of the view that, â€Å"Leadership is a process by which individuals are influenced so that they will be prepared to participate in the achievement of organizational or group goals. † While Marcouse (2008) narrates that, â€Å"Leadership, at its best, means inspiring staff to achieve demanding goals. † All these things emphasize on one basic idea and that is Inspiration or Influence. So we can say that Leadership is the art of getting things done by inspiration or influence of the leader on its followers while Management mainly depends on the analysis and ground realities.After all the discussion we came to the conclusion that Leadership and Strategic management are interlinked with some minor differences. In the case of strategic management we are trying our best to achieve some long term goals and the same is the case with leadership. In both cases we should have someone with a broad vision; either it’s a leader or a manager. The bottom line of all this discussion is beautifully captured by the golden words of Field Marshal Slim that (quoted in Business Management Study Manual), â€Å"Leadership is of the spirit, compounded of personality and vision: i ts practice is an art.Management is more a matter of accurate calculation, of statistics, methods, timetable and routine: its practice is a science. † AC(1. 2): Analyze the impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions. Leadership and Management Styles: There is famous saying that, â€Å"Change is the only unchangeable thing in nature† (Heller & Hindle, 2008). Similarly in our daily life things are changing rapidly and we have to adopt ourselves to these changes. We can’t say that we will remain in the same situation forever.We have to act according the situation. Similarly there certain ups and downs in organizations as well. So the managers and leaders adopt different styles for different situation. According to Whitcomb (2000), some famous and widely recognized styles are: a) Autocratic: In this style people are told what to do and how to do. They have no role in decision making. Once made, a decision must not be questioned. b) Democratic: In this style decisions are made on the views of as many people as possible that are involved. ) Passive: In this style people are given general directions on the tasks to be tackled and then left alone to achieve them in the way they think is best. d) Charismatic: In this style leader influences and motivates others because of his/her outstanding personality or character. As mentioned earlier, that these styles depend on certain situations and to be a good leader/manager you would have to adopt all of them. All these styles of management and leadership have certain impact on strategic decisions. The organizations led by Autocratic leader are basically Task Oriented.According to Jenkins and Hamman (2001), the advantage of such style is that the decisions are made quickly because people know where they stand. But the employees in such organizations are not happy to some extent because they have no role in decision making. As Barratt and Mottershead (2000) is of the opinion that in Au tocratic leadership the Work-force is not encouraged to think for itself, and emphasis is more on quantity than quality. While the organizations led by Democratic leaders have proved good because they are both Task oriented as well as Relationship oriented.But according to Barratt and Mottershead (2000) the decision making process is slow and that can be dangerous. And the organizations led by Passive style are Relationship oriented. And Marcouse (2008) is of the view that this only occurs when the manager is very busy or very lazy or has confidence on his/her team and knows what they are capable of. According to Whitcomb (2000), Charismatic style of leadership is very rare but can be very successful in the extent to which they can motivate others to do things to support them. AC(1. 3): Evaluate how leadership styles can be adopted to different situations.Leadership styles can be adopted according to the situations. For example; during a war a commander has to make quick decisions ( Brindley and Buckley, 2004), or in the case of a natural disaster there is no time for suggestions from the people, so autocratic style will be perfect. The bottom line is that for quick decision you should always go for the Autocratic style. In the case of a Research and Development Organization, employees are highly trained, skilled and professional people, so the style that best suits this situation is Laissez-faire.Because employees know what they are doing and what are their goals. And the situation that is the best candidate for Democratic style is a youth club planning for their summer camp. They will have to take suggestions from all the persons involved and then will make a decision. In this case the decision making process is slow but effective at the end of the day. AC(2. 1): Review the impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organizational strategy in your chosen organization. Every single person on this earth is different.The difference may be in way of thinking, analyzing something, working or implementing something. Along the course of life humans made many theories about things around them, some of them were wrong and some proved successful. Human are called the most superior species on planet earth and this superiority is due to the fact that humans learn from their mistakes. So humans learnt a lot from their mistakes and devised new theories. In this task we are going to focus our attention on the different theories of leadership and management made during 19th and 20th century.Theories of management and leadership: According to Morris (1999), â€Å"The first-rate way of making a fool of oneself is to propose as new an approach tried and rejected by earlier generations†. There are a lot of ways of doing something, some of them have been tried before and some are not. So a successful manager always learns from the past experiences and tries not to repeat the mistakes. The 20th century has seen many theories of management applied to the organizations; some of them are described below. a) The Classical School: According to Morris (1999), this approach is ased on the main purpose and the structure of the organization. The organization is just like a machine, just feed the input and get the output. The role and position of every individual is defined. People are supposed to do things as mentioned by the higher level, human feelings are irrelevant. b) Bureaucracy: The main emphasis is on the performance and duties of the individuals. The duties of the all the individuals are fixed according to the area of their expertise. And like Classical School theory, human feelings are irrelevant. ) Systems Theory: This theory was developed in 1950s and 1960s. The theory is based on the working of a typical system. It takes certain input (raw material, people) and transforms them through a process into output (organizational goals). d) Human Relations Theory: This theory was developed in 1930s. The main theme of this theory is the human relations. The Association of Business Executives in Organizational Behavior mentioned that, â€Å"to understand and improve an organization, you need to understand the people who work for it. † ) Contemporary Theories: These theories are based upon the idea of sticking to the key functions of the organization and puts emphasis on going towards excellence. f) Contingency Theories: This theory emphasizes that there is no single particular way of running an organization. Everything is dependent on the situations through which the organization is passing by. Impact on Tesco: Tesco is one of the leading organizations, with a vision of providing people everything they need, under one roof at affordable price. Now we see the impact of the selected theories of management on the strategy of Tesco.The impact of Classical School theory on Tesco’s strategy is a bit disappointing because Tesco believes in excellence with the help of its employees. So the Classical Theory is surely going to inversely affect the strategy of Tesco. The Bureaucratic Theory’s impact is similar to the Classic School Theory. But this approach is providing a helping hand in organizing the overall working of the Tesco. But only defining the duties of the employees and organizing them is not enough. The Tesco’s strategy is to run the organization in a disciplined manner, keeping in mind the feelings of its employees.The impact of Human Relation Theory on Tesco’s strategy is not good enough. It should be kept in mind that this theory alone is not enough to provide any progress in long term. But the good thing about it is that it takes into account the ideas of all the employees. The Contemporary and Contingency Theories have a good impact on Tesco’s strategy. Both these theories are leading Tesco towards excellence. Changing the style according to the situation and sticking to the overall performance is surely good enough fo r Tesco’s progress in long term.AC(2. 2): Create a leadership strategy that supports organizational direction in your chosen organization. We have seen the impact of different theories of management and leadership on the strategy of Tesco. And we came to the conclusion that there is no single theory that can support Tesco’s strategy. Everything depends on the situation of that organization in a particular time frame. So in the case of Tesco the best strategy that supports organizational direction is the Bureaucratic approach along with a flavor of Human Relation theory.The Bureaucratic approach will be helpful in achieving the organizational goals and keeping everything on track. It will also help Tesco to maintain its day-to-day budgets in control and will make some serious profits for the organization. The Human relation approach will take into account the feelings and needs of the staff and the people attached with Tesco. It will ensure that the workforce is enjoyin g its time working with Tesco and take their work to perfection. This new combination will be very helpful in maintaining the discipline in the organization and will be very beneficial for the employees.So the working and the progress of Tesco will be very smooth. The people will be aware of their position and duty in Tesco and they will be free to work out a plan for performing their duties efficiently. Although this new leadership strategy seems a bit odd to many people but if it is implemented in its true spirit, it will be very helpful. AC(3. 1): Use appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements. There are certain methods available for reviewing the leadership requirements. Some of them are listed below.Blake and Moulton’s Managerial grid: According to Mullins (2005), Blake and Moulton’s Managerial grid is one of the several methods available for reviewing leadership requirements. According to this method, all managerial and leadership styles are re viewed on the basis of two main rules. 1. Concern for Results; and 2. Concern for People. In the first case, manager diverts all its energy on the accomplishing of tasks in given time. This is shown along the horizontal axis on the grid. While in second case, employees and their needs are given importance.And this is represented along the vertical axis of the grid. Barratt and Mottershead (2000) have narrated this grid as a Matrix of managerial styles. [pic] Figure: Blake and Moulton’s Managerial Grid (Source: http://www. gridod. com/images/LeadershipGrid. jpg) The numbers inside the grid indicate the degree of concern of the mangers. For example; managers with a rating of (9,1) practice Autocratic style because they show little concern for the employees. On the other hand, a rating of (1,9) depicts the behavior of a Democratic manager. It is also referred as â€Å"Country Club† management by some authors.According to my research and findings, the management style of T esco, on the basis of Blake and Moulton’s managerial grid, should be rated as (7,5). 360 ° Feedback: According to Mullins (2005), â€Å"The idea of 360 ° feedback involves an appraisal and feedback from different groups within the work situation – peers and subordinates as well as bosses, and possibly internal and external customers. † The main purpose of the 360 ° feedback is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of an individual or an organization. It may include a self-assessment questionnaire.This feedback helps in overcoming the weaknesses and exploiting the strengths of the organization. [pic] Figure: Mulins’s 360 Degree Feedback Cycle Source: http://recordtracker. net/images/pic_360. gif MBO (Management by Objective): Another common approach in reviewing leadership and management styles is Management by Objectives commonly known as MBO. According to Mullins (2005, p. 249), MBO is a system of management which is aimed at relating the organ izational goals to individual performances and development through the involvement of all levels of management.While Morris (1999), is of the view that the top manager should set an overall objective, and should convey it to the lower management for completion. MBO is potentially an attractive system. It provides an opportunity for staff to accept greater responsibility and to make a higher level of personal contribution. {Mullins (2005)} [pic] Source: http://leapcomp. com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/mbo-process-cycle2. gif Mc. Gregory’s Theory X and Theory Y: The figure defines both the theories in detail. The bottom line is that Theory X is Task oriented and Theory Y is Relationship oriented. [pic]Source: http://www. vectorstudy. com/management_theories/img/theory_x_y. gif AC(3. 2): Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership. A good leader is always prepared for the any kind of challenge. He acts quickly and accurately according to the given situation . We can say that a good leader takes the right decision at the right time. I have listed a couple of future situations here that will require a firm leadership. Conflict Resolution: You cannot stop conflicts from occurring between individuals and organizations. Sometimes these conflicts are useful and sometimes they are not.When I say useful, it means that sometimes new ideas are created from these conflicts. Or these conflicts point to a deficiency or a week point in the management of the organization. So they are helpful in pinpointing the lapses. On the other hand sometime these conflicts leave a bad impression. Whatever the reason is, conflicts should be resolved smoothly. So for the purpose of conflict resolution a leader should be there with a remedy. And it is then up to the leader to resolve that conflict in any way he likes; whether by choosing Autocratic style or by Democratic style.Merger and Acquisition: Another most important situation for an organization is merger or acquisition. It’s a really very difficult decision. You have to be very accurate in your calculations and should have a good insight of market trends. A leader with a vision and deep thinking is essential in this case. Either you are going for merger or going for acquisition, you should be able to foresee the state of your employees and organization in coming years. Recession: A couple of years ago there was no concept of recession on a large scale. But now many of the world’s most popular economies are facing difficult times.Now-a-days recession has become a worst nightmare for many people around the globe. And according to the economist it is the only chance for organizations to control their budget. So for recession there should be a strong leader with a clear cut policy. This is the worst case scenario and a true test of a leadership that how it overcomes recession. Adaptation for change in technology, taste and performance: Change is the unchangeable law of nature . And adaptation for change is very difficult for certain organizations and it may be due to many factors.One of the key factors is that many old employees don’t welcome change because they are used to work in old fashion and any change in technology, taste and performance is a bit difficult for them. So a sincere leadership is required for any change to become successful in organization, a leadership that is able to remove the ambiguities from the minds of all employees about the nature of the change. Natural Disaster: Another very important situation that requires a leadership is a natural disaster. During the period of a natural disaster many employees and organizations are in a state of ambiguity.They are unable to perform their duties efficiently. That’s why a firm and dedicated leadership is required, that is capable of overcoming the difficulties, and is capable enough to restore the confidence of the employees and organization. AC(4. 1): Plan the development of leadership skills for a specific requirement. There are certain skills that every leadership should possess. True leaders have these skills in their genes and others adopt them during the course of their life. But one thing is certain that these skills are present in all the great leaders of the world.The possession of these qualities is not enough; a good leader should be able to develop these skills and to be able to apply them in accordance with the requirement. A good leader possesses the right skills and uses them in the behavior that best suits the current situation. The main skill of a leader is its influence. A good leader always uses its influence on its followers to obtain the best results. Inspiration can bring huge changes in organizations. So a good leader should always try to develop and enhance its influence by empowering its employees. So this skill can be developed by self-help by learning from mistakes.A good leader should have good communication skills. He should be able to communicate easily with his team members. Now-a-days the world is becoming a global village and to become a good leader, one has to be able to understand the feelings of others. So a leader should practice more and more to master this skill. A good leader should always be adaptable to change. He should have a vision and he should try to introduce modern ways of getting things done. He should encourage his staff to use new technology and new techniques for their routine work. He should be confident and determined in his vision.So he should arrange seminars and workshops to convey his vision to his followers. A good leader should be unbiased; he should be able to manage diversity within an organization. He should be role model for all the employees from any origin. He should be punctual and honest. It’s only through his own punctuality that he can maintain discipline in the organization. A good leader should be able to communicate the policy and regulations of the o rganization to every single employee. And that can only happen when he first exercises them himself before communicating to others.He should be able to expand the organization in all ways possible. He should be able to appoint new staff and train the old staff according to the new technology. He should arrange training courses and other developmental activities for his company. He should also use his powers to keep the organizations on track. And most importantly he should use his power of rewarding for winning the heart of his employees. He should be a good speaker so that in any situation he is able to explain the position of organization in an effective manner.A good leader should possess good coordination skills for maintaining the integrity between different departments of the organization. Discipline should be the main thing for a leader and there should be no excuse for it. Because it is the main factor that can change the fate of the organization. A good leader should be hon est and well-wisher of its people. He should stick to his commitments and promises. A leader should be a good listener; it helps him in overcoming the weaknesses of the organization and sometimes gives him a chance to grab some new ideas as well. AC(4. ): Report on the usefulness of methods used to plan the development of leadership skills. There are certain methods that we can use to plan the development of leadership skills. One of the best methods is to call a meeting of the staff and ask about their ideas. The best method, however, is 360 ° feedback. It helps you in understanding your exact position in organization. Another widely used method is to gather as much information as you can about the life of great leaders. It will help you in adopting their skills and their secrets of the trade. Another way of developing leadership skills is to get familiar with your followers.It will help you in understanding their feelings and their needs, which in turn will help you in managing their needs. So we used different plans for the development of leadership skills including; seminars, meetings, training courses, self-help, learning from mistakes and a lot others. All these methods are very useful to plan the development of leadership skills. Seminars and workshops are very helpful in understanding the point of view of other people. Training courses help in understanding and overcoming new challenges. These courses help organizations to implement effective ways of getting things done.They also help in creating a learning environment in an organization. Meetings should be arranged regularly; this will help a leader in developing his communication and coordination skills. Another very important method is exchange visits. These are very helpful in developing leadership skills. These visits may be between different sections of the same organization or between different organizations. These are very helpful in developing the leadership skill of managing diversity. Refe rences: Barratt, Mottershead. (2000), Business Studies, Italy, G. Cannale & C. S. p. A Borgano T. se – Turin.Brindley, Buckley. (2004), Business Studies, A-Level Study Guide, Hants, Ashford Color Press, Gasport, Hants: Pearson Education Limited. Business Management Study Manual, The Association of Business Executives. Heller, Hindle (2008), Essential Manager’s Manual, London: A Penguin Company Marcouse, Surridge and Gillespie (2008), Business Studies for A Level, Third edition, Italy: Hodder Education. Morris, M. J. (1999), The First Time Manager, 2nd Edition, London: Clays Ltd, St Ives plc. Mullins, L. (2005), Management and Organizational Behaviour, 7th Edition, Essex; Pearson Education Ltd.The Association of Business Executives, Organizational Behaviour Whitcomb, A. (2000), Comprehensive Business Studies, 5th Edition, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. http://www. emeraldinsight. com/products/journals/journals. htm? id=sl (Accessed on 13th October, 2010) http://www. Tesco. co. uk (Accessed on 13th October, 2010) http://top7business. com/? id=2113 by Akhil Shahani (Accessed on 20th October, 2010) Bibliography: Greene, Stellman (2005), Applied Software Project Management, O’Reilly Inc. Jenkins, Hamman (2001), GCSE Business Studies, Italy: Hodder and StoughtonEducational Schermerhorn, Hunt, Osborn (2002), Organizational Behavior, 7th Edition, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. http://www. ccl. org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy. pdf (Accessed on 13th October, 2010) http://www. emeraldinsight. com/products/journals/journals. htm? id=sl (Accessed on 13th October, 2010) http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/strategy. html (Accessed on 13th October, 2010) http://www. zeromillion. com/business/leadership-strategy. html (Accessed on 13th October, 2010) http://www. businessballs. com/leadership. htm (Accessed on 20th October, 2010)