Monday, September 30, 2019

International business Essay

1.Which four archetypes does Verbeke distinguish? Draw the figures associated with these archetypes. †¢ Centralized exporter †¢ International projector †¢ International coordinator †¢ Multi-centered MNE 2.Is there one best model? Why or why not? No, there is no best model, because using which model is depends on host country and FSAs. 3.Do you consider a centralized exporter a true multinational? Yes, it has operation in more than one country. 4.What does it mean that the FSA is embodied in the product in case of an international exporter? Exporters develop products on the basis of a favorable home country environment, including local clustering, and make the exporting firm successful in international markets 5.Does the firm develop FSAs in the host country in case of the international projector? No, they just transfer the FSAs they developed in the home country, clone their operation 6.Why is the international coordinator an example of a global value chain? Because for international coordinators, International operations are specialized in specific value-added activities and form vertical value chains across borders. The key FSAs are in efficiently linking these geographically dispersed operations through seamless logistics. 7.Why is a multi-centered MNE characterized by maximum local responsiveness? Because multi-centered MNEs recognize that operating in each host country need to build distinct location-bounded FSAs. 8.The FSA is also framed in terms of core competences. That is the FSA is strongly related to the core competences of a firm. What key characteristics does Verbeke list for these core competences? Difficult to imitate Broadly used in variety markets Make a contribution to customer needs Large effect on firm’s present and future performance if lose this competence 9.What critique does Verbeke have on the concept of core competences? Overestimate the role of strategic management, underestimate the role of host country location factors. 10.What are the five forces that Porter distinguishes? Explain these in your own words Factor conditions: resources,  including natural resources, knowledge, labor, infrastructure etc. Demand conditions: market size and domestic buyer sophistication Related & supporting industries: high quality suppliers, being critical in related industries Firm strategy, structure and rivalry: highly competitive, home-based industry with efficient macro-level governance and several domestic rivals Government and chance: well-functioning but not corrupt government 11.How does Porter’s model fit in figure 1.2? Where does it belong? It belongs to home country location advantages 12.What is the big problem of Porter’s model when applied in the context of International Business? FSAs are totally domestically determined.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Movie: The Birth of A Nation Essay

Tim Dirk’s review of The Birth of a Nation[1] is one of the most detailed and comprehensive reviews that has encompassed almost all the aspects of this masterpiece. This movie was made in 1915 by the producer/director D. W. Griffith. The story moves in the background of civil war affected America and are manifested in the form of lives of two families Stonemans and the Camerons. The pathos and miseries afflicted by the war are shown with close connection to key historical proceedings i.e. the growth and expansion of Civil War and the origin of the Ku Klux Klan.This film is also manifest   epitomize the historical justification for racial segregation. The movie tried to disperse the notions that Reconstruction was a disaster and African American can never be assimilated into white society. It further propagates the ideas that Ku Klux Klan emerged to restore the dominancy of whites in South that was at stake by uncontainable blacks. The film’s considerate depiction of whites lynching activities and emergence of Ku Klux Klan as messiah affirms the racial discriminations and notion of blaming the blacks for all evils in American society at that time. The Birth of a Nation further explores the two other themes related to post war era i.e. interracial sex and marriage, and the empowerment of blacks. Tim Dirk has analyzed all basic elements of the movie i.e. title, story, plot, narration, characterization, dialogue, motifs etc. Firstly, he takes into account the artistic and thematic aspects of the movies and then provides a brief synopsis of the story and at the end evaluates its technical merits. I agree with his overall verdict about the movies as â€Å"A controversial, explicitly racist, but landmark American film masterpiece† because despite its anti-black, it has introduced certain technical and artistic innovation for the first time in American cinema. Tom Dirk says that these innovations includes usage or ornamented title cards, the close-ups, the use of natural outdoors backgrounds, the wide-angle shot and panoramic long shorts. Director Griffith has further implied the amazing technique of parallels actions in a single sequence for example Gus’ endeavor to rape Flora and Ku Klux Klan salvage of Elsie and Margaret. He picturized the battle scenes in a way that hundreds of extras appeared as thousands. Dirk further pays homage to the work of Billy Bitzer, the cameraman of the movie who introduced the night cinematography with the help of Magnesium flares and the technical effects by camera iris i.e. expansion and contraction of camera’s circular masks. (Dirk, 2006) While analyzing the theme of the movie, he has rightly pointed out that Birth of A Nation is definitely one of the most significant contributions in nurturing cinema’s role as an art form. I concur with his stance The Birth of a Nation portrays some of the most chaotic and turbulent conflicts of American History. Dirk points out that the post civil-war period is picturised with colors of racial discrimination and African American are depicted as the cause of all socio-political and economic problems of the Reconstruction era. Dirk further takes into accounts set of components that must be taken into consideration while making a movie analysis. This set is known as MISE-EN-SCENE and includes Setting and sets, Acting style, costumes and lighting and asserts that in Birth of A Nation, ideological or symbolic information is conveyed through these particular setting. Overall, the review contains all the mandatory information about the story and provides an in-depth analysis of necessary paraphernalia of the movie. But it ignores the characterization by the author and its presentation by the actors and actresses. References Dirk, Tim. The Birth of A Nation (1915) Website:http://www.filmsite.org/birt.html [1] Initially it was released and premiered with the title The Clansman in January, 1915 in California but later on the title was changed to Birth of A Nation.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - Research Paper Example This is concerning the use of thoughts to determine behaviour and feelings. Therefore, it cognitive behaviour therapy aims at helping patients understand distorted beliefs that affect the way they carry themselves and their emotions, while at the same time suggesting useful ways in which their condition can be corrected to fit appropriate attitudes (â€Å"Cognitive Therapy†, n.d.). In such cases, cognitive therapists work collaboratively with clients by taking an educational role and giving their patients the role of trying out new treatment methods. The methods are usually alternatives to their conventional and traditional methods of solving problems. This way, the therapist collects information to analyze various therapeutic strategies likely to succeed in treatment, as well as dysfunctional thoughts that a patient may have, inhibiting their well-being (â€Å"Cognitive Therapy†, n.d.). Theoretically, the belief system used in cognitive behaviour therapy are in the for m of a therapists attempt to uncover the underlying assumptions borne by a patient. This is with regard to a patent’s rules or values that predispose them to depression, anxiety or anger. These are the belief systems that patients bear towards themselves relating to what they perceive themselves to be as well as how they would like to be. Such conceptions include the need to be understood by others, need to be perfect and sense of worthiness and approval among others. Therefore, therapists following this aspect of cognitive therapy are required to recognize the potential and belief systems for each patient, as well as the behaviour and thought process that is typical of them (Leahy, n.d.). Cognitive distortions are also called automatics thoughts and are conscious, spontaneous thoughts that are associated with negative emotions. They are the result of biases in the thought process and are categorized in a number of ways. Mind reading a cognitive distortion is based on the ass umption that the patient already knows that which another person is thinking without adequate evidence. This way, one ends up having negative thoughts about themselves as they usually have no clue as to what the other person is thinking before drawing conclusions on what they think. Another feature of cognitive distortion is that of fortune telling that is characterized by pessimism about future events. This is based on negative occurrences likely to happen in the said future (Leahy, n.d.). In addition, patients that require cognitive behavioural therapy have a tendency to label and discount positive events. This is concerning assigning negative traits to themselves and other members of the society while downplaying their achievements. While downplaying achievements in society is considered modest, in cognitive therapy, any positive achievement by oneself or others is labelled as trivial and not worth mentioning, so that they do not count. Still on negation of events, patients tend to focus most of their energy on negative events where they rarely notice positive occurrences happening in the society or to them and, as a result, they tend to live depressed lives. The aspects of cognitive distortion are numerous, whereby all revolve around the aspect of negative attitudes and behaviours directed at society, and oneself, while at the same time questioning what other probable event would be probable to

Friday, September 27, 2019

Bostonair Limited v World Trade Center Hull & Humber Essay

Bostonair Limited v World Trade Center Hull & Humber - Essay Example The task-oriented approach enriches their jobs, and since the attention is job-centered, the routinary element is minimized and the emphasis is placed on results. Flat organizations lack the tall hierarchical structure of centralized organizations and are better suited for workers who, because of their technical expertise, work best in a spirit of collaboration rather than control. Bostonair also has the advantage of a custom-designed recruitment software that more effectively and efficiently matches employer-customers’ needs with job applicants’ qualifications. Because of the exceptional quality of its service, it has accumulated an exceptional track record in the 65 years it has been in service, ranking 7th in the UK among privately owned firms. Its quality of performance has merited a high level of repeat business from prominent firms in the airline industry such as KLM and Lufthansa Technik. Furthermore, much of its organization’s revenue is generated in the German market; the profits earned from German firms exceeds profits may from the UK firms by a factor of 4:1. This is partially an advantage for Bostonair, in that the German economy is the largest and most progressive in Europe. In the case of an economic recession, the German economy is most likely going to prove the most resilient among the European countries, which means demand for Boston airs services may be expected to remain steady. On the other hand, the fact that Germany is its biggest market may present a slight disadvantage in that Germany’s tax rates are higher than those of other European countries, including the UK. Also, it is still possible, despite the strength of the German economy, that the airline industry, in general, may succumb to the global recession. This is not farfetched since travel for business and for tourism are both sensitive to market downturns.  

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Hospitality Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Hospitality Management - Essay Example Most important is for the organization to identify the needs of its consumers. The organization must then select a specific product that will meet consumer needs (Day, p. 38). A purchase team is also put in place to deal with all purchase processes. The team then comes up with a list of products that meets the customer needs and puts into consideration the company’s standards of quality of products. Lastly a budget for purchase is created, a search for best and potential supplier is done, and contract awarded (Day, pp. 37-39). Receiving is a process of properly documenting receipts of goods and services that were ordered by the organizations purchase team by signing and dating the receipt. It involves checking condition of purchased goods that is their quality, quantity and finally storing them. In case of damaged goods or any other complain, it is put forward before signing the receivership book (Siddiqui, p. 8). Storage is the process of keeping goods in a safe place or in the company stores for future sale. Various activities take place during storage. Recording of goods in the store is one of the important activities that take place. The management in the store also records goods that are received or taken from the company’s warehouse. They are also responsible in ensuring all the goods in the stores are in good condition and identify arising problems in the store. Inventory control is the process of maintaining a balance in quantity of available goods in an organization. The management in the inventory control department ensures efficiency and prevents acquisition of excess goods by keeping record of available goods and their condition (Axsater, pp. 76-77). Procurement is the backbone of the organization since it deals with goods and services in the organization. Management of the organization should ensure it has qualified and competent staff or team to be efficient

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Arius Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Arius - Essay Example This teaching ended up becoming so popular in fact that many bishops ended up defecting to the Arian heresy, and it was officially condemned at the First Council of Nicea in 325 AD and as well was supported later in the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD. Then, from these councils came the Nicene Creed which Christians profess in Church each Sunday. There are many different important issues that should be known about Arius, and the aim of this paper is to discuss the most significant of all. Who Arius was, where he came from and the type of life that he lived, what his method of communicating his beliefs was, and the controversy that he caused throughout his life - each and every one of these issues will be thoroughly addressed and discussed here, and by doing this, we will be able to attain a much more informed and knowledgeable understanding on Arius overall. This is what will be dissertated in the following. Arius is considered to have been of Libyan descent, with his father being known as Ammonius. Arius was a student in Antioch at the exegetical school, where he studied under Saint Lucian, who was in fact the school's founder. It was in the year 313 when Arius was made presbyter of the Baucalis district in Alexandria, and this is how he really became known. He was considered as being a man of personal aesthetic character, pure morals, and decided convictions, although at the same time there were a number of people who assailed his character. The traditional beliefs of his time are incredibly important to take into consideration, and Christianity was by far the most major religion. Pope Miltiades was the Pope from July 2, 310 or 311, to January 10 or 11, 314, and was subsequently made a saint. Miltiades was who became Pope after the Roman emperor Galerius had previously passed on an edict of toleration ending the persecution of Christians, and "During his pontificate, in 313, the Edict of Milan was passed by the tetrarchs Constantine and Licinius, declaring that they would be neutral with regard to religious worship and restoring church property. Constantine presented the pope with the Lateran Palace which became the papal residence and seat of Christian governance" (Haas, 1993). In the year 313, Miltiades presided over the Lateran Synod in Rome at which Caecilian was acquitted of the charges that had been brought up against him, and Donatus Magnus ended up being condemned as a heretic. Magnus was then summoned to the Co uncil of Arles, the first representative meeting of all of the Western Roman Empire's Christian bishops, but he ended up dying before it was even held. After the death of Miltiades, he was made a saint, with his feast-day being held on December 10. There is also the important note to make of although his death was considered as being natural, at the same time he is nonetheless regarded as a martyr because of all of his earlier suffering under the ant-Christian emperor Maximan. The name God is considered as referring to "the deity held by monotheists to be the supreme reality. God is generally

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Significance of Bacteria in the Ecology Research Paper

The Significance of Bacteria in the Ecology - Research Paper Example The cell membrane is composed of lipids (phospholipids ) such as cholesterol, proteins, and lipids or protein carbohydrates associations.The function of the cell membrane is to regulate the materials which enter and leaves the cell. In evolution, bacteria have produced nutrition for communities of living organisms through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. Other significances both ecological and evolutionary includes: they are decomposers of ecosystems (they decay dead organisms to release elements needed by other living organisms), the metabolic processes of some bacteria produced the first oxygen gas in the atmosphere, they aid in atmospheric nitrogen fixation and also as ecological decomposers by cleaning environment and releasing elements needed by other organisms from dead decaying matter. In symbiosis, parasites obtain nutrients and nourishment and harm their hosts, while they get nourishment and nutrients and neither do they harm nor benefit their hosts. On the other hand, mutualists benefit their hosts. Sexual reproduction is advantageous in that it results in variation e.g offsprings of human can have traits from all the four grand parents. Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, is advantageous because it results in the in production of great numbers of offsprings hence high survival chances of a given species. In mitosis process, one nucleus divides into two identical nuclei while meiosis is the process by which one nucleus with two copies of each chromosome divides into four nuclei with one copy of each chromosome.

Monday, September 23, 2019

The Ugly Duckling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Ugly Duckling - Essay Example The collection of plots was chosen because the picturesque version extremely makes children not only listen to the story but also try to read and understand the picture and make up the conversation. The background of images gives special meaning to the text and helps to integrate words and meaning into the image. Children can express the known text content of books through their observation. The history of the ugly duckling gives a mixed message. While parents can encourage children to become like an ugly duckling who continues to optimistically seek out his true identity and refuses to become like others. Like an ugly duckling, children are taught to sit and learn to get up and not be influenced by the opinions of others. More importantly, parents and teachers can use this story as an important tool for developing critical thinking among children and encourage them to use their imagination when they are in their places. This is an interesting way to teach them to have a broader pers pective. Children also learn that everything they love should be pursued, as they help children understand their potential. The book also tends to send a negative message about the development of an inferiority complex among children, and this ugliness is bad. This is not so, so parents must confront this problem by reporting that it was not ugly, but different. Therefore, people look at people and form impressions that may be wrong, as in the case of the ugly duckling who was called ugly simply because he was not like others.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

What are three reasons why students fail university-level classes 3 Essay

What are three reasons why students fail university-level classes 3 reasons why they pass - Essay Example If they love their course enough, they will study that hard, or even discover more things in order for them to learn more. This means learning must have become the primary concern for them. Students who aim for higher learning are making it good especially in their class performance (Hunt 83). Second, those students who pass university classes are setting for themselves vital goals for them to achieve. This means that it will be harder for them to be involved in some sort of distractions, as going to school and learning things have become their primary considerations why they are in school in the first place. Another potential reason why students pass university classes is because they have the specific level of intelligence required to understand and pass the course. With this in mind, they will be able to pass exams, actively participate and be involved in class discussions and so

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Special Education Teacher Essay Example for Free

Special Education Teacher Essay Abstract This paper reflects on the teacher candidate’s observations of the student â€Å"Junior† and the various accommodations that were made for him in various classroom settings. It also discusses different accommodations that could be made in general education classes and special education classes. The paper discusses the need for high school students to be self-advocating or self-determining and learning to make decisions on his or her own. TEACHING FOR EXCEPTIONALITIES 1 SPE-226 Educating the Exceptional Learner Benchmark Assignment: Teaching for Exceptionalities. Students with exceptionalities are a breed all their own. Each student has individual strengths, weaknesses, and individualized education programs/plans (IEPs) tailored to those needs. There are many resources, accommodations, and settings for these students to help ensure their academic success. One particular student, herein called â€Å"Junior,† is a mixed bag of interesting. Junior’s cognitive abilities are on par with his classmates. However, he needs help with reading, writing, and other social and behavioral skills. He likes to engage in discussion, enjoys music, and is diligent in his work. Observing him, his teachers, and other various special education classrooms has given valuable information to increase my teaching strategies. Inclusive Math Class Junior’s first period class is Algebra 1-2. It is an inclusive class and is co-taught by Meinen and Geigas. Meinen, the special education teacher, is there to help students and provide assistance services to Geigas’s teaching. However, all of Geigas’s classes have some form of inclusion. Consequently, Geigas’s teaching strategies differ from regular education teaching strategies in order to appeal both to the inclusive students and regular students. For instance, Geigas uses different colored pens for different the different steps of a problem when he is teaching and doing problems with the class. He is also willing to create copies of the class worksheet for any student who needs it, not just special education students. The accommodations for Junior’s quiz were highlighting the directions for him and writing the different formulas, like point-slope form and the equation for finding the slope of a line, on his paper for easier access. Highlighting the directions for Junior’s quiz was successful. He knew what was expected of him, and what he needed to accomplish with the quiz. He did not TEACHING FOR EXCEPTIONALITIES 1 need to have the directions read to him or explained to him. In addition, writing the formulas on his paper helped keep him on track. He only needed help with one graphing question, which could be a difficult question for any student. Because Junior only missed two questions due to minor mistakes, I believe the accommodations were very successful and do not need to be changed. Furthermore, I would review the minor mistakes with Junior, have him explain where  he went wrong, and give him half-credit since he had the major concepts correct. Many other technologies or other instructional supports exist that could enhance the learning for Junior and his classmates. In the math classroom, there are white boards and a document scanner. The document scanner is what Geigas and Meinen use to do the problems together with the students. Two major benefits to having the document scanner are having a hard copy of what work was done in class and being able to go back if necessary. If the class were only using the white board, each problem would have to be erased in order to move on to the  next problem. If a student needed to go back, this would create a lot of wasted time redoing work that was previously done. Another good technology tool that students could use is Khan Academy, a website with videos and exercises to help anyone learn skills and concepts at their own pace (Khan Academy, 2013). It also tracks all data inputted and shows the user’s statistics over time. This information is private to the user, but it can be shared with teachers and coaches, so teachers can use the Khan Academy classroom in their own physical classrooms (Khan Academy, 2013). While Khan Academy is a good resource, the classroom only has one teacher computer available, so any type of technology is extremely limited. Self-Advocacy and Self-Determination Junior is just one student of many. There are many other special education students in the inclusive classrooms that could need more help. Because these are high school students, they TEACHING FOR EXCEPTIONALITIES 1 need to be taught the idea of self-advocacy or self-determination. This is the idea that the student’s ability to â€Å"consider options and make appropriate decisions and to exercise free will,  independence, and individual responsibility† (Hardman, Drew, Egan, 2009, p. 92). Therefore, many of the special education students in the inclusive classes must ask for the bigger accommodations. For instance, if a student needs to go to a separate room with less people and/or have the directions read and explain to them aloud, they must ask permission to do so (A. Geigas, personal communication, November 4, 2013). â€Å"Since self-determination skills are most effectively learned and developed by practicing them, students with disabilities should be given  ample opportunity to use their self-advocacy, decision-making and socialization skills well before they leave high school to prepare themselves for working and living in their community† (PACER Center, 2013). Allowing this type of openness is actually beneficial for the students. It allows the students to become more independent while in the safe, closed environment of the classroom. Additionally, effective self-determination teaching can increase positive transitional outcomes in moving from high school to adult life (Hardman, Drew, Egan, 2009, p. 92). For these reasons, many accommodations are not expressly given to students. Self-Contained Special Education Class When it comes to special education classes, there can be more focus on the individual student and his or her needs. In Junior’s special education behavior class period, the class focuses on what is expected of him and his classmates in social situations. They were planning a field trip to a symphony during the week, so the teacher discussed examples of the types of behaviors that would be expected of them and what behaviors would be unexpected in the given situation. As for Junior, he likes to be engaged in class, which leads to him shouting answers. In some classes, it is acceptable, and others it is not. He had to be reminded that he needed to raise TEACHING FOR EXCEPTIONALITIES 1 his hand, and be acknowledged in order to speak during his turn. Michelle Garcia Winner gives a good accommodation or lesson that can deal with this kind of behavior: I encourage teachers to keep their eyes focused on who they were talking to, hold up the palm of their hand in the direction of the blurter and say to them I was looking at this student (say the students name), I was talking to this student, I am not talking to you right now. By doing this, the teacher provides cognitive information about the process of communication that helps the student learn how to avoid blurting. (2012) On the other hand, Junior did well in understanding why certain behaviors would be unexpected, offensive, or rude while at the symphony. Given this observation, one can tell that Junior only has mild or moderate problems with social behaviors. As a result, this self-contained class was geared more towards his classmates in the room. This is a prime example of how the accommodations of special education teachers differ so greatly between rooms, classes, and  students. Conclusion Observing and talking with Junior’s teachers, special and regular education, has given me a plethora of information that has increased my teaching tools and strategies. Observing a range of classrooms and situations has given me a deeper understanding of the kind of scenarios that may be presented in my future. Overall, Junior is a very bright, engaging student. Spending time with him and observing a multitude of different classrooms has given me valuable insights into the world of teaching students with exceptionalities. TEACHING FOR EXCEPTIONALITIES 1 References Garcia Winner, Michelle. (2012). Social Thinking at School. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013 from https://www. socialthinking. com/what-is-social-thinking/-social-thinking-at-school Hardman, M. L. , Drew, C. J. , Egan, M. W. (2009). Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family (10th ed. ). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Khan Academy. (2013). A free world-class education for anyone anywhere. Retrieved 14 Nov 2013 from https://www. khanacademy. org/about PACER Center. (2013). SELF DETERMINATION. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013 from http://www. pacer. org/tatra/resources/self.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Militant Abolitionism In 1830s

Militant Abolitionism In 1830s During the colonial era, Quakers Society of Friends had a difficult time convincing North American people that slaveholding was against Christian doctrines. However, the age of Enlightenment and the American Revolution led many Americans into fighting for slaves rights. Northern states also started a gradual emancipation of their slaves. The federal government also prohibited slavery in the Northwestern Territories in 1787 and in 1808 banned trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, despite the abolition of slavery in these two areas, antislavery agitation dropped off due to the increasing profitability of southern slavery. The birth of the Movement and its Activities The modern American militant abolition movement began in the early 1830s as a result of religious revivalism popularly known as the Second Great Awakening. Abolitionists thought of slavery as a product of an individual sin by Revivalist tenets. These tenets believed that emancipation was the only price for repentance. Later on, abolitionists realized that slavery was receiving moral support with some racial prejudice. Immediately, the abolitionists lobbied to change the nations racial discriminatory practices. Abolitionists tried to reach and convert people during the 1830s. Founded in 1833, the American Anti-Slavery Society recruited tens of thousands of members from all parts of America. The Abolitionists condemned slavery on moral grounds and pursued immediate emancipation of all slaves. National religious institutions and individual slaveholders, who were the chief targets, rejected the abolition appeals. Opponents went further to suppress antislavery agitation through enactments from the church and state. African American activists joined the new campaign. Some, like Brown, had many records of public opposition to racial discrimination in the north and the colonization movement. Fugitive slaves, such as William Wells Brown and Fredrick Douglass, provided strong antislavery testimony. However, black abolitionists encountered patronizing views and attitudes from the white abolitionists. Hence, many turned to self-help and civil rights groups, while others concentrated on separatist projects. Many women braved public disapproval and joined the abolitionist campaign. Women are known to be veterans of moral reform activities, and principles of religion and republican ideology inspired them. Like their African American counterparts, these women faced opposition within the movement. Women were first barred from the American Anti-slavery movements, but in response, they formed local organizations through which they channeled their concerns and sponsored antislavery events such as bazaars and picnics. Due to the widespread rejection of the anti-slavery program, many abolitionists changed their moral persuasion strategy. Most of them led by William Lloyd Garrison abandoned their churches. According to Garrison, churches had become hopelessly corrupted by slavery. Women participated in American Anti-slavery society after 1840. Maria Weston and Lydia Maria were among the many women who served in the groups operations and main office duties. Religious and political abolitionists also emerged in late 1830s. Non-Garrison abolitionists grouped in a new organization known as The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. The abolitionists lobbied religious institutions, and by 1840, they had an organized Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist antislavery movements. Political antislavery campaigns also intensified during this period. Abolitionists petitioned legislatures and interrogated political candidates on slavery-related issues. Antislavery Efforts before 1830 Abolitionist feelings were strong during the American Revolution and the upper south by 1820s. However, the abolitionist movement never coalesced into a militant crusade until 1830s. In the previous decade, before 1830, much of the north underwent social disruptions associated with the spread of commerce and manufacturing. Powerful evangelical religious groups arose to impact spiritual direction to the society. These preachers stressed the importance of ending sinful doings and practices and the responsibility of every individual in upholding Gods will in the society. Lyman Beecher, Nathaniel Taylor, and other preachers, on what came to be called The Second Great Awakening, organized massive religious revivals in the 1820s. This came later to be the main impetus of the resurgence of abolitionism. By 1830s, William Lloyd Garrison, Theodore D. weld, Lewis Tappan, Arthur, and E. Wright had spiritually been nourished by revivalism and had taken up the cause for immediate emancipation Conclusion The main objective of the abolitionists was to end racial discrimination, segregation, and immediate emancipation of slaves. The religious favor of the Second Great Awakening partly fuelled racial abolitionism. This prompted many people to start advocating for immediate emancipation on religious grounds. As time went on, abolitionist ideas spread in northern churches. Politics of 1830s also contributed to the regional animosity between the South and the North, leading to a civil war.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Latin America: A Legacy of Oppression Essay -- essays research papers

Latin America: A Legacy of Oppression When the Europeans first arrived in Latin America, they didn’t realize the immensity of their actions. As history has proven, the Europeans have imposed many things on the Latin American territory have had a long, devastating effect on the indigenous people. In the centuries after 1492, Europeans would control much of South America and impose a foreign culture upon the already established civilizations that existed before their arrival. These imposed ideas left the continent weak and resulted in the loss of culture, the dependence on European countries, and a long standing ethnic tension between natives and settlers which is evident even to this day. The indigenous people of South America, which included the Aztec, Olmec, and the Maya cultures of Central America and the Inca of South America, had developed complex civilizations, which made use of calendars, mathematics, writing, astronomy, the arts, and architecture. Unfortunately for them, the Europeans cared little about the culture they would be obliterating, and cared more about their own ulterior motives. Before the influence of the Europeans, the different tribes scattered throughout Latin America would be viewed by â€Å"western† standards as somewhat barbaric. The European friars were horrified by native practices and felt obligated to â€Å"eliminate† them. (Gibson 72) An extremely Christianized view of the natives was formed which viewed them as ignorant pagans. Some accounts reported that, â€Å"The natives were so savage and stupid as to be beyond belief. For the say, these early tribes were bestial, and that many ate human flesh; others taking their mothers and daughters for their wives, besides committing other great sins, having much intercourse with the devil, who they served and held in high esteem†(Hanson 29). This extremely biased thinking was common in the era of colonization among settled Europeans and sparked a crusade of Christianity on the aboriginal tribes to â€Å"westernize† their civilizations. The Europeans felt free to do this because they â€Å"found no native tradition worth preserving and where the Indian element was absorbed almost imperceptibly into the alien† (Salas 42). The European powers hid under a veil of Christianity to gain support for the underlying atrocities they were committing to the people of Latin America. The European government’s main goal ... ...s, 1966 Hanson, Earl Parker. South from the Spanish Main, Delacorte Press, 1967 "Latin America." Encarta. CD-ROM. Seattle: Microsoft, 2001. Leon, Juana Ponce de. Our Word is Our Weapon, Seven Stories Press, 2001 Liss, Peggy K. and Liss, Sheldon B. Man, State, and Society in Latin America, Praeger Publishers, 1972 Lyon, Patricia J. Native South Americans: Ethnology of the Least Known Continent, Little, Brown and Company, 1974 McDonald, Ronald H. and Ruhl, J. Mark. Party Politics and Elections in Latin America, Westview Press, 1989 â€Å"The Peace of Latin America.† National Geographic October 1905: 479-480 Picon-Salas, Mariano. A Cultural History of Spanish America, University of California Press, 1963 Radin, Paul. Indians of South America, Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1942 Ribeiro, Claudio de Oliveira. â€Å"Has Liberation Theology Died?† The Ecumenical Review Jul. 1999: 304 Toplin, Robert Brent. Slavery and Race Relations in Latin America, Greenwood Press, 1940 Veliz, Claudio. The Centralist Tradition of Latin America, Princeton University Press, 1980

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

A Review of Responses to the National Endowment for the Arts Report, “R

During the past twenty years there has been much debate over topics regarding literacy and literature in America. In June 2004, based on their comparison of literary reading surveys from 1982, 1992, and 2002, the National Endowment for the Arts released the following statement. The accelerating declines in literary reading among all demographic groups of American adults indicate an imminent cultural crisis. The trends among younger adults warrant special concern, suggesting that – unless some effective solution is found – literary culture, and literacy in general, will continue to worsen. Indeed, at the current rate of loss, literary reading as a leisure activity will virtually disappear in half a century. (NEA, â€Å"Reading at Risk†) In recent years, access to the Internet has become available to Americans of all ages and cultural backgrounds. Some authority figures in academia see this as a threat to the perpetuation of printed literature. Other authorities view the Internet as an additional medium for advancing literacy. Another problem authorities face is one of definition. Some authorities want a broader definition of what constitutes literature while others insist on a standard of quality for literary works. What follows are some thoughts and opinions on these related topics and others. Some critics feel the NEA survey’s narrow definition of â€Å"literary reading† is the NEA’s feeble attempt to designate genres of literary importance. The â€Å"Reading at Risk† study defines literary readers as those who read short stories, poetry, and plays in their leisure time, excluding any reading done for work or school or on the Internet (NEA, â€Å"Reading at Risk†). Stuart Moulthrop, co-author of the online dialogue, â€Å"New Literacies ... ...orum Blog. 29 Sept. 2004. . Rachel. â€Å"More on Reading at Risk†. Online Posting. 23 August 2004. Banana Republican. 19 Sept. 2004 . Schwartz, Nomi. â€Å"NEA’s Reading at Risk Elicits Strong, Varied Responses.† American Booksellers Association Online. 15 July 2004. 19 Sept. 2004. . Solomon, Andrew. â€Å"Reading at Risk: Lack of Interest in Literature is a Crisis.† Commentary – Columbia Daily Tribune. 8 Aug. 2004. 19 Sept. 2004. . Wood, Peter. â€Å"Literature at Risk: The State of Our Reading Habits.† National Review Online. 19 July 2004. 19 Sept. 2004 .

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Living with Asthma :: Medical Medicine Respiratory Essays

Living with Asthma missing works cited The weather in Boston is just beginning to feel cooler as Maeve Vaillancourt, a Northeastern University sophomore rushes to her first class of the day. Although she is already behind schedule, she huddles in a corner to take a dose of her Abuterol inhaler, then finishes her ten-minute walk and slips into class late. â€Å"I hate taking my inhaler in public, because it is embarrassing, but after quick walks like that, I need to or else I feel as if I can’t breathe,† said Vaillancourt. Vaillancourt has been suffering from asthma since she was diagnosed at the age of 9. She is one of 18.2 million adults age 18 years and older with this illness according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Over seven million children ages 0-17 have asthma. Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system that leads to inflammation of the bronchial tubes, resulting in difficulty carrying air to the lungs. Asthma greatly affects an individual’s breathing, and can place severe restrictions on daily life. During asthma attacks, which may be triggered by weather, allergens, exercise, the individuals’ ability to breathe becomes difficult. As a young, active college student, Vaillancourt’s battle with asthma plays a role in her day-to-day life, beyond just her walks to class. â€Å"I don’t think of inhalers as medicine. I bring it out everywhere; itis like a wallet, or cash,† said Vaillancourt, who suffers from mild asthma. â€Å"If I don’t bring it out, I panic and actually make my asthma worse.† Like most who suffer mild asthma, Vaillancourt is prescribed two inhalers. One is a preventative inhaler, Advair; and the other is her emergency inhaler, Albuterol. Advair is used to prevent an attack from occurring. It contains the steroid, fluticasone, which prevents inflammation that leads to asthma attacks; and salmeterol, which is abronchodilator, to relax muscles to improve breathing.Albuterol is also a bronchodilator, used to treat bronchospasms as they are occurring. Vaillancourt takes Advair, her preventative inhaler, and once in the morning and once before she goes to bed, as well as before exercising. Although she knows it is important Vaillancourt said she â€Å"often has trouble remembering and keeping up with taking the inhaler.† Vaillancourt has noticed that since she has been living in Boston and consistently walking, especially in cool weather, she is more likely to remember her inhalers since she is more likely to need them.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Is it true that Adolf Hitler is the son of Rizal Essay

This is absolutely absurd, but since some fairly educated people actually want to believe it, I write this column.The argument is that Rizal had a German connection, he studied in Heildelberg, and being the Pinoy Don Juan he probably sired a son (why not a Daughter?) who later turned out to Adolf Hitler. Hitler was born 1889, and Rizal left Germany in 1887. Unless Hitler was a delayed baby, that is highly improbable. Although there is no resemblance between the two, it is argued that unlike the tall, blond and blue-eyed Germans, Hitler wanted to propagate into the â€Å"master race,’ Hitler himself was small of stature had dark hair and dark eyes. I would counter this argument by explaining that, contrary to popular belief, Hitler was Austrian not a German. But then Rizal visited in Austria in May 1887 and according to Rizal’s traveling companion, Max Viola, he did spend a night with an unknown Austrian woman. Viola remembers that they were billeted in the Hotel Metropole, Vienna and Rizal â€Å"†¦encountered the figure of a temptress in the form of Viennese woman, of the family of the Camelliasor Margarite of extraordinary beauty and irresistible attraction, who seemingly had been expressly invited to offer for a moment the cup of mundane pleasure to the apostle of the Philippine freedom who until the had enjoyed among his intimates the fame worthy of his glorious namesake, St. Joseph. With the exception of this case I knew of no other slip of Rizal during more than six months of our living together.†

China in Africa Essay

In brief the NAI Policy Dialogue questions the World Bank recommendations for large scale agriculture to solve the productivity and equity problems in African agriculture. The whole issue of property rights is intimately linked to the question about agriculture and development. The contribution by Benjaminsen and Sjaastad on aspects of property rights formalization in Africa draws on recent processes in Mali and Tanzania. A general conclusion is that the formalization of property rights in rural areas is a very complex and problematic issue. There is a high risk of the process being co-opted by officials and a wealthy elite, if necessary provisions are not made. Finally, Kjell Havnevik draws our attention to the relationship between inequality and climate change. This contribution is based on a presentation he made in Berlin in June 2007. Decoding the evolving China–Africa relations is the theme of an article written by NAI Research Director Fantu Cheru. He suggests that policies and programmes to deal with the present imbalances between China and Africa require us to revisit and redefine the NEPAD agenda. A regional approach will, in his opinion, help African countries to negotiate from a stronger and better platform. During 2008 researchers at NAI will continue to devote attention to this topic. In our interview section we present one interview with Martha Qorro, professor in English language, on the question about the language of instruction in Tanzania. She is of the opinion that the best way to teach English is not to use it as the language of instruction. She also responds to the question why the question of language of instruction has become such a sensitive political issue in Tanzania. In our second interview Jerome Verdier, chairman of the Liberia Truth and Reconciliation Commission, points to the fact that the TRC’s part of the conflict resolution is nothing new. Liberia has a history of resolving community conflicts at the round table. But in the past there were no prolonged conflicts, such as the recent 4 year period of massive human rights violation. In the research section we present the result of a conference which took place at NAI, Uppsala, in September 2007 regarding the ongoing discussions between EU and the ACP countries on Economic Partnership Agreements. The discussion at the conference highlighted the lack of connection between the poverty alleviation goal and the reality of the negotiations, despite numerous political declarations on both the EU and ACP sides. Key decisions on EPAs will soon be made by EU and ACP ministers. The Africa Europe Group of Interdisciplinary Studies, AEGIS, of which NAI is an active member, is presented through three contributions. Photo by Susanne Linderos News from the Nordic Africa Institute 3/2007First, we bring you an interview with the AEGIS Chair, Professor Patrick Chabal of King’s College, London.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Life of a Military Child Essay

It is often stated that soldiers who fight for our country make several sacrifices. While many have made the ultimate sacrifice, there are many more people who are affected by their service than just themselves. Children that belong to parents that have served or have parents currently serving are forced to overcome many obstacles. Not only are they forced to spend large amounts of time separated from their parent/parents, but they are forced to also move and adjust to unexpected changes frequently with no warning. Whether it is ever made known or not, when a solider enlists into any branch of the military, their family enlists as well, and just as they make a sacrifice so does their children. They often sacrifice time bonding with their parents, convenience of stability, and sometimes their wants and needs. Children that belong to a parent that have served or parents that are serving are forced to overcome many obstacles. Military children must adjust to a new life when their parents are away. Sometimes it’s their mother, sometimes it’s their father, but there are many cases where there are both parents away at the same time. The children are separated for various reasons to include their parents going to the field for weeks at a time, and sometimes they are sent overseas on dangerous deployments for up to 15 months at a time. Those children spend a great deal of days and nights worrying and wishing they could see and spend time with their parents. Soldiers are also sometimes sent on hardship permanent changes of station where they aren’t allowed to take their family members for up to 1 year. Almost daily military children are forced to wake up early and go to bed late because their parents work from 6:30 in the morning to after 5:00 in the evening. Military children are also forced to move around a lot. A soldier can receive orders to relocate within a 3 to 6 month window of reporting. Many times they do not have an option so they can be sent anywhere in the world. They could go from the east coast to the west coast or even overseas to Germany or Japan. When soldiers receive their PCS (Permanent Change of Station) Orders, the children are usually uprooted, and they may have to frequently adjust to new people and schools. Because these changes can occur every 2 to 3 years, many times the children are greatly affected because they have to make new friends everywhere they go only to possibly leave those friends and lose contact when the next orders are released. Although military children endure many changes throughout their parents’ time in the service they have many positive attributes because of those constant changes. Most military children are very flexible and adjust very well to change. They are also very well rounded and are usually more outgoing because they meet new people very frequently. What can also sometimes happen however is that they can have separation anxiety and possibly get into more trouble because of the constant changes. Many times the situation can go either way. It is always up to the parent however to do everything that they possibly can to make the child’s life as comfortable as possible and to keep an open relationship when dealing with the affects of being a military child. Although military children sometimes endure a great amount of transitions they have proven to be very successful in life regardless of their childhoods and they usually look back and appreciate their time spent in many different locations.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Comparison of A Doll’s House and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay

Prompt #14: â€Å"Important characters in plays are multi-dimensional. Discuss to what extent this statement is true of important characters in plays you have studied and comment on the techniques of characterization employed by the playwright.† Multidimensional characters can also be defined as dynamic or constantly changing and developing characters. These dynamic characters are not simply important to a play, but are arguably the most important characters because what the playwright intends to communicate to his or her audience is communicated through the changing emotions and behaviors of these characters. Additionally, playwrights use a variety of techniques to highlight the changes an important character may go through. The dialogue, staging and stage directions, setting, music, lighting, and even costumes can all be used to highlight a multifaceted character’s emotional and physical changes. In A Doll’s House, by Henrik Ibsen, and A Streetcar Named Desire, by Tennessee Williams, the playwrights primarily use costumes, which parallel the emotional and behavioral changes of important dynamic characters, and contrast in dialogue to amplify developments and changes in the characters’ relationships and behavior. Ibsen’s choice of costume design portrays Nora as a dynamic character in A Doll’s House. Ibsen changes Nora’s costume to parallel her behavioral and emotional changes in the play. The â€Å"Neapolitan fisher-girl† costume, for example, represents Nora’s secrets and their restraint on her autonomy (Ibsen 29). Therefore, Nora’s want to â€Å"tear [the masquerade costume] into a hundred thousand pieces† represents her will to be rid of her lies and to take off of the mask she puts on for Helmer (Ibsen 28). The costume facilitates this need throughout the second act of play. When Nora practices the Tarantella dance, she dances wildly and â€Å"her hair comes down and falls over her shoulders† (Ibsen 47). Wild and free hair has connotations of independence and liberation. Therefore, the costume begins to show the audience her will to free herself from the mask she puts on for Helmer. However, she remains in the dress at this point in the play meaning that she is still restricted by the disguise she wears for Helmer’s satisfaction. Again, the dress highlights Nora’s development when it is removed in Act III before Nora gathers the courage to tell Helmer she must leave him to gain her independence. Nora’s masquerade ball costume conveys how Nora’s lies and mask of happiness restrain her freedom and helps to illustrate her eventual escape from them. Therefore, the costume design amplifies the characteristics that make Nora a dynamic character. Williams also uses his costume designs to characterize his dynamic characters in A Streetcar Named Desire. However, rather than connecting a specific costume with a feeling, he associates a general type of costume with specific emotions and actions. For example, the lavish costuming of Blanche represents the extent of her desire for, and delusion of, an extravagant life. As the play opens and Blanche enters, her appearance is described as â€Å"incongruous to [the] setting† (Williams 15). She is introduced being dressed as if she believes she should be somewhere and someone else. Furthermore, her beauty from the â€Å"white suit with a fluffy bodice, necklace and earrings of pearl† is described as delicate and sensitive to light (Williams 15). This description of Blanche suggests that her rich and royal appearance is purely superficial and does not represent the reality of her life. This connection between costume design and Blanche’s fabricated reality is continued throughout the play. Before beginning to flirt with the young paper boy in Scene Five, Blanche â€Å"takes a large, gossamer scarf from the trunk and drapes it about her shoulders†, and then begins to pretend he is a young Prince and later makes Mitch bow to her (Williams 84). The playwright, Tennessee Williams, connects Blanche’s affluent adornment with her delusions of wealth and importance that develop and grow stronger as the play progresses. In the final scene, Blanche’s illusions blend almost entirely with her reality as she asks Stella to gather a number of elaborate accessories, including a cool yellow silk boucle and â€Å"a silver and turquoise pin in the shape of a seahorse†, and dresses herself in a dress and jacket of a color that Madonna once wore (Williams 132/135). Williams uses this costume to amplify the absurdity of Blanche’s illusion of spending her life on the sea with a millionaire. Therefore, Blanche’s costume choices in A Streetcar Named Desire connect to her developing insanity, which makes her a complex and dynamic character. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen also utilizes tension in dialogue, specifically the tension between Nora’s inward and outward expression of feelings surrounding worth, to portray Nora as a dynamic character. The playwright first creates a contradiction between her internal and external feelings, only to eventually change her apparent expression to match her true feelings. In the first two acts of the play, Nora’s outward expression of a woman’s worth revolves around being a good wife and mother by aiming to please Helmer, her husband. However, her inward feelings portray the opposite. Nora inwardly believes that worth involves being true to herself. Nora is outwardly submissive to her husband by allowing herself to be called by possessive pet names, such as his â€Å"little spendthrift†, his â€Å"squirrel†, or his â€Å"extravagant little person† (Ibsen 2-3). Furthermore, even Nora uses these labels for herself during the first two acts. These names put Nora in a submissive position because they define Nora as a possession of Helmer’s. Therefore, when Nora labels herself a skylark or squirrel, she outwardly submits to the will of her husband, proving her external idea of worth revolves around his happiness. However, whenever Nora yields to Helmer, there are undertones of sarcasm within the dialogue portrayed both by the stage directions and the writing. When Nora first calls herself Helmer’s skylark and squirrel, she does so while â€Å"smiling quietly and happily†, as if she aims to manipulate him with her words (Ibsen 4). This example of irony mixed with manipulation illustrates the contradiction between what Nora outwardly expresses and what she internally believes. Nora’s sarcasm is also present directly in her dialogue with Helmer. In the conclusion of the first act, Nora asks Helmer to â€Å"take [her] in hand and decide† how she should attend the masquerade ball (Ibsen 25). The sarcasm she speaks these lines with is evident when she utilizes hyperboles to appeal to Helmer’s ego, such as telling him â€Å"no one has such good taste† and that she â€Å"can’t get along a bit without† his help (Ibsen 25). Therefore, Nora’s exaggerated submission to Helmer suggests a dichotomy between her internal ideas of worth and her actions. Yet, as the play develops, Nora’s actions begin to match her interpretation of value. She begins to overtly become a subject of her life, rather than the subject of her husband’s. In the final pages of Act III, Nora discards the view she externally portrayed in the first acts of A Doll’s House by explicitly rejecting Helmer’s assertion that â€Å"before all else, [she is] a wife and a mother† (Ibsen 66). She explains to Helmer that she believes that â€Å"before all else [she] is a reasonable human being†¦ [who] must think over things for [herself] and get to understand them† (Ibsen 66). This rejection of blind obedience and assertion of autonomy supports the claim that Nora’s outward expression developed over the course of the final act to match her opinion of worthiness. Because Nora’s expression of merit changed over the course of the play, she is considered a dynamic, or multifaceted character. Therefore, Ibsen’s use of dialogue in A Doll’s House is instrumental in portraying Nora as an important and multidimensional character. Tennessee Williams also uses tension in dialogue within his play, A Streetcar Named Desire, to portray his significant characters as multidimensional. However, rather than creating tension by using contradiction to develop a single character’s dialogue, Williams creates tension by contrasting the dialogue of Stanley and Blanche. This distinction between the two characters, and the way they communicate in the play, causes behavioral changes suggesting that dialogue is responsible for dynamic transformations in the characters’ actions. Blanche’s speech is educated and full of literary illusions. She uses a reference to the gothic poet Edgar Allen Poe to describe her sister’s life and situation by calling her neighborhood â€Å"the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir† (Williams 20). This complexity present in Blanche’s dialogue portrays her as a representation of the old, aristocratic South. In contrast with Blanche’s more sophisticated way of speaking, Stanley uses simple societal based metaphors and commonplace clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s in his dialogue. Rather than using a literary based metaphor for Blanche, Stanley uses one based on politics. Stanley describes her fame in Laurel â€Å"as if she [were] the President of the United States, only she is not respected by any party† (Williams 99). Additionally, the clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s Stanley uses in his speech, such as â€Å"no, siree, bob†, â€Å"boy, oh, boy†, or â€Å"the jig was all up† portrays Stanley as the down-to-earth representation of the New South (Williams 100-101). The contrast between the dialogue of the two characters and the connection it has with the social group they identify with highlights their dynamic characteristics by emphasizing Blanche’s attempt and ultimate failure to integrate herself into the less aristocratic and educated New Orleans. Therefore, the playwright’s effort to contrast the dialogues of Blanche and Stanley facilitates Blanche’s representation as a multifaceted and changing character in A Streetcar Named Desire. Analyzing how a playwright portrays his or her dynamic characters gives insight into what the playwright intends to say through their development. For example, Henrik Ibsen uses a single costume to connect the audience with Nora’s progression into an autonomous woman in order to focus the audience’s attention on a single facet of Nora’s life and desires, while Williams uses many costumes with varying degrees of lavishness, to highlight the degree to which Blanche blends reality with fantasy. Furthermore, Ibsen uses tension in dialogue of a single character to keep the audience’s focus on Nora, while Williams contrasts the speech of two characters to highlight the contrast between two different social worlds, the new and old South. Therefore, the most important characters in a play are always multidimensional characters because most of a playwright’s commentary is included in the development of these characters and analyzing the techniques a playwright employs to distinguish a dynamic character helps to convey meaning. Bibliography Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. Print. Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Signet, 1975. Print.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Organizational Power or Politics Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organizational Power or Politics - Term Paper Example They should serve as guiding principles for the success of an organization and particularly in managing and empowering employees. Power is such an important element for the success of an organization, but it is a broad concept at the same time. It could either harm or help an organization depending on how it is implemented. In the context of an organization, it is defined as the ability to do or acquire something (Nelson & Quick, 2011). In this definition, power is concerned on the capacity of an individual to influence and employ authority over a certain organization or group. In other words, there is a clear distinction between power, influence and authority. Power is the ability, influence is a process and authority is the right of a person to create impact on the lives of others (Nelson & Quick, 2011). Power can be significantly viewed as the ability to influence and employ one’s authority. Thus, power should consist of combined ability to apply influence and authority. It is in this reason why power is such an important concept that for a long period of time continues to be one of the most signific ant issues that need to be taken into account in leadership and other related essential activities within an organization. In this paper, the proponent tries to discuss and analyze the basic and essential concepts of power and political behavior in an organization based on the ideas of Nelson and Quick. The essay starts with the discussion of their ideas on power and political behavior, followed by analysis and conclusion. Nelson and Quick discuss important issues regarding power and political behavior primary within the context of a group or an organization. First, they place substantial distinction among the concepts of power, influence and authority. For them, each of these has different impact and usage. A manager may have the right to take control over employees but this would not

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Social and historical aspects of Latin American crime Essay

Social and historical aspects of Latin American crime - Essay Example Nevertheless countries that are the main suppliers of cocaine are also the poorest when their GDP compared to Brazil or Argentina. Yet exactly these countries have most shaky economic conditions and because of their political immaturity remain a good prey for manipulations and corruption. It is also difficult for them to exist after the violent and traumatic age of political repressions, totalitarian oppression and colonial tyranny before it. Latin America is really a gallery full to the edge with colorful and bright portraits of different dictators: Augusto Pinochet, Rosas, Chaves are among world most famous tyrants. Such position creates a bright contrast between the highly liberal and democratic system of the USA or even Canada colonized mostly by British and French on one side and Hispanic Latino Americans from the South part of the Continent. Like Spain and Portugal were in past more influenced by the African and Middle Eastern influences of Arab culture it can be said that Sout hern America felt deeply Eastern violence characterized by terrible dictatorships unknown to European Monarchies. People like Castro, Jimenez or other generals who like Stalin, Mao, Saddam or Kim Jong-il happened to take all the power in their hands because of war and total poverty of people. The poorer country is the easier it is to blackmail it with most simple products of high importance like food, water, simple safety in your own house and peaceful sky. Wars happen when people are so despaired that they can’t take it anymore.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Women, Work and Class Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Women, Work and Class - Assignment Example However, masculinity represents power not only of any men but white men that too those who leadership positions in the society. Hegemonic masculinity represents power that is attributed to men in high positions and such power is taken for granted whenever any man holds a certain position in the society. Hegemonic masculinity â€Å"legitimates the power of those who embody it† (Acker, 2006, p.82). In essential, hegemonic masculinity can be associated with violent acts like using violence for colonial conquests. In modern capitalism, violence is often masked by objective conditions like top managers in any organization can fire employees to increase profits thus creating unemployment (Acker, 2006, p.83). Hegemonic masculinity represents a country’s culture and heritage and this can be different in each country. Acker (2006) has given the example of Swedish banks trained and ambitious men in high positions give more priority to making profits than satisfying the needs of t he customers (Acker, 2006, p.84). Hegemonic masculinity is the power bestowed on men in position, and in the real sense it gives men in authority to use their power to bring positive changes in the society. Political leaders of a country can use the power bestowed on them to promote goodwill and harmony with other countries. 2. Means of provisioning In economic perspective, class differentiation is based on access of means of provisioning and survival. In a capitalistic society, production process and finances are executed with the objective of maximizing profit. Therefore, although some classes are provided with maximum resources, there are other classes whose production and resource accumulation capacities are undermined. Education and community play an important role in access to provisions, because these factors contribute towards â€Å"finding paid job at living wages† (Acker, 2006, p.55). Those who have control over production jobs receive highest returns in the field o f distribution. An economic structure of a nation is formed on the basis of distribution of provisions i.e. necessary supplies like food and clothing needed for survival. Provisioning occurs through paid or unpaid method of production, and distribution of results of production like wages and profits. Provisioning also affects gender and race. Many employees hire male workers in skilled trades or specific racial people for menial jobs for lower wages (Acker, 2006, p.170). However, with increase of service sector jobs, women labour is increasing thus making women breadwinners for families (Acker, 2006, p.172). Acker (2006) has given the example of housewife who does unpaid work of maintaining family. She has little control over means of provisions since she is dependent for provisions on others who are engaged in production and distribution processes (Acker, 2006, p.63). Today, education has become universal and also with increased job opportunities for all gender and races, power ove r means of provisioning is no more restricted to specific gender or race. Therefore, by contribution towards provisioning it is possible for any individual to become a significant shaper of a nation’s economy. 3. Corporate nonresponsibility Corporate nonresponsibility emphasizes the role of household women in the field of care and survival. This concept actually moves the responsibility of those with power and wealth and shifts it to women from poor and minority communities. It devalues their position but they are bound by responsibilities to take care of their lives and lives of others (Acker, 2006, p.9) Nonresponsibility can be turned to globalization processes. The scopes for profit and production without challenges to nonresponsibility act as encouraging factors for shifting production from

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Standards and Standardization Research Paper Essay

Standards and Standardization Research Paper - Essay Example The international method and schemes that are used are applied to the methods and processes used for the creation and maintenance of content, the specific tools used for content creation and maintenance and the interoperability of the contents. The implementation of international standards and other standardization procedures has the effect of reducing the risks that may be met as well as improving the quality of goods and services that may be offered consequently improving an economy as well as the welfare of the society as a whole. Economists propose a mode of categorization of standards that can be based on the economic effects that come across that is useful in the analysis of both the economic forces that determine standardization as well as the impacts of the standardization. Therefore, it can be authoritatively argued that any standard enhances trade as they reduce asymmetries in information, show the consumers that there is quality and create a common basis of discussion for the partners involved in trade that has an effect in the reduction of costs incurred in transaction (Estevadeordal, Suominen and Teh 2009, p.251). International standards can be used to facilitate trade in terms of imports while national standards are essential in protecting domestic suppliers from competition from foreign markets and through this; consumers are protected as well as reduced costs for companies. In addition, due to the fact that industries rely more on a network of suppliers and differentiated value chains, international standards are an important element in the assessing the quality of products and the reduction of risks to both consumers and the suppliers. Swann (2010) states that there is a positive relationship between international standards and standardization of exports or imports whereby for national standards, the results are inconclusive while internationally it affects trade and the economies depending on their design and mode of implementation (Swann 2010 , p.6). Standardization is a voluntary, consensus-driven activity carried out by all interested parties and along with the code of mutually recognizing others, it plays a noteworthy role in the in the proper running of both the internal and international markets. Harmonization of standards helps ensure that there is a free movement of merchandises within the national and international markets thus making the businesses or enterprises to be more competitive in the market (Chrisdoulaki 2010, p.5). The standards set up by different criteria of standardization has got the beneficial effect of protecting the health and the safety of consumers of the products offered in the market place whether locally or internationally as well as the protection of the environment in which we live in. National/international Product Certification schemes Canadian Standards Association (CSA) The Standards Council of Canada whose main task is to improve and promote efficient as well as effective standardiza tion procedures for products and services used within Canada and internationally has accredits the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). It conducts both standardization and certification after which it awards the CSA certification mark when products meet the required safety and performance levels in its fifty-seven areas of operation. Within the arm bit of CSA group is the CSA International that tests

Monday, September 9, 2019

Death Penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Death Penalty - Essay Example The death penalty should not be used for the mentally ill or youths under the age of 18. Circumstances surrounding each individual case also need to be determined. The most important issue concerning the death penalty is the debate. This issue is far from settled either legally or socially in the United States. Many myths surround the death penalty. â€Å"Among the myths surrounding the death penalty are that it deters violent crime, that it costs less than life imprisonment, that victims’ families demand it, and that organized religion justifies and supports its use† (Catron and Stein-Holmes n.d.:4). If a murderer wants to commit a crime, their main thought is not about the death penalty. If this were the case, states like Texas, Oklahoma, and Virginia would see a decrease in capital offences. Timothy McVeigh would have blown up a Federal building in Iowa, not Oklahoma City. Murderers do not have the morals that a rational law abiding citizen have, which makes them think differently. The death penalty does not serve as a deterrent to crime. Although deterrent hypothesis still exist, they are only a hypothesis (Cloninger and Marchensini 2005:3). Research has not definitely proven the death penalty as a deterrent (Cloninger and Marchensini 2005:3). Another myth is the death pe nalty is cheaper than life imprisonment. The death penalty costs more than life imprisonment (Schaefer 2008:177). Another myth debunked is all families request the death penalty. Some family members do not want the death penalty. Finally not all religions demand the death penalty. An example of an anti-death penalty church is the Catholic Church. These myths should not be used to argue for the death penalty. The United States is the last Western country to implement the death penalty (Catron and Stein-Holmes n.d.:4). Of all execution reported, 92% happened in the United States (36 states/military/Federal government), China, Pakistan, Iraq, and Sudan (Schaefer

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Identify one major political event in an African country Essay - 1

Identify one major political event in an African country - Essay Example The main objective of the paper includes making the exploration of the actual political scenario of the Libyan politics, which had experienced a significant blow during the last few years in the name of so-called ‘awakening of the Arab nations’ for introducing imperative alterations to the Afro-Arab politics to a great extent. The paper will also examine the reasons behind the unexpected revolt against the Qaddafi regime. The paper is also interested in investigating into the external factors, including the US role, in respect of toppling the Qaddafi regime for the establishment of a pro-American political system in the lines adopted by the European powers of colonial era for turning the weak and backward states to be their subjugated domains in order to introduce and enforce the policies of their choice as well as to force the small countries for developing social, economic, business and trade relations with the USA. Hence, the paper will portray a comprehensive scenari o paving the way towards 2011 revolt in Libya in the light of internal and external factors controlling and regulating the rebellion and rebels at large. Muammar Qaddafi served as one of the most dominant and influential figures of the twentieth century Afro-Arabian political world, which left indelible impact of his political and strategic achievements in the entire region during the second half of the last century till the first decades of new century. By dint of his exceptional intellect, deep foresight and outstanding wisdom, he successfully played the role of a central figure in the national politics of Libya for over four decades, where he was the sole decision-maker of the fate of his country and its masses at large. Though, apparently, he was considered to be unconquered and supreme in national politics, who would sustain power till the last day of his life, Qaddafi became the victim of purported Arab Spring appeared by the mid of December 2010 with the big powers in

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Prepare an organizational Strategic Human Resource Plan Essay

Prepare an organizational Strategic Human Resource Plan - Essay Example We also hold up all the talent growth of our workers through qualified growth, profession growth, and better presentation for our management. Mostly endorse the most attainment of a work existence balance and wellness in our workers community. To bring Human Resource services, plans and more so communications that are can be more valued by our potential workers, present workers, and retirees. To provide a quality and varied, comprehensive a group of people with an optimistic work surroundings. To struggle for most talented with effectual staffing plans and well organized staffing processes. Anothr goal of human resource is to foster an inclusive, diverse community, as well as a positive work environment. This will involve conducting climate assessment, building a better work environment, partner with Diversity Office to uphold and promote principles of community. Other provisions under this goal would also be to educate the community on harassment and discrimination prevention by equ ipping them with productive problem solving techniques. Objectives To generate a total plunder significance so as to educate the Human Resource associates, employing new managers, and even workers of the high value of this organization. Working very directly with the management so as to strengthen the needs for aggressive reimbursement for most of the individuals in our institution and desires to draw and keep our students. Â  To advance in specialized growth programs so as to get better management abilities, job capacities, and eventually employee efficiency. To expand complete vocation organization tools, job enhancement plan, furthermore mentoring all programs so as to help our workers and then get ready for more new chances. Develop more usable and flexible employment preparations during greater decision making and workers responsiveness regarding the possible reimbursement to workers and departments. Strategic Human Resource Organization Chart Our Activities Experts in our ins titution of Human Resources are listening carefully about civilizing our services to the university’s society by humanizing our abilities. Most of our efforts are to provide back to the career through managements and participation in expert relations. Again we will provide more efforts so as to intensify the information of the career by adding more of the academic qualifications and expert certifications. We will keep more information to our students this during these times so as to let everyone be acquainted with how the talented our members of the team are increasing as experts. Our Strategic human resource organization gives the financial, shared and supporting factors that one can be created in the external circumstances in which our University works. These factors have significant value, which have allegations for effectual human resource organization associated to the change work of art of the institution, in terms of era, sex and more so racial allocation. Our Universi ty seeks to make sure that its works better to the most extent promising. We do analyse and take away the most universal organisational difficulty to women’s development and give confidence to diversity in its employees and students population. There are important confront in upholding a high level output in mature employees and making sure that this University is most successful in employing and keep

Fpl Harvard Business Casw Essay Example for Free

Fpl Harvard Business Casw Essay The fourth largest electric utility company in the United States and the largest electric utility in Florida is the FPL Group, which formed in 1925 from the consolidation of several gas and electric companies. FPL as a company continued to grow after 1925 because the ever increasing Florida population demanded more and more electricity. This trend continued until the 1970s when operating problems, and the rising cost of fuel and construction, caused a reduction of the company’s profitability. To address this issue, then Chairman Marshall McDonald, decided to make four major acquisitions: Colonial Penn Life Insurance Company, Telesat Cablevision Inc. , CBR Information Group Inc. , and Turner Foods Corporation. FPL also attempted to improve operations by employing 1,700 teams for quality control to find ways to improve operations. This notion lead FPL to be recognized as â€Å"one of the best-managed US corporations,† when the quality control teams found ways to improve efficiency within FPL by decreasing customer complaints by 60%, and decreasing downtime operations by 12%. Despite these enhancements, FPL still had company troubles to include: problems with a nuclear plant, demand was growing at a faster pace in the 1980s than expected, one of their acquisitions had lost $250 million since being acquired, and employee morale was low due to all the new management regulations. Kate Stark, the electric utilities analyst at First Equity Securities Corporation came across a decision involving this Florida electric utility company, FPL. The decision begins with the buzz that FPL may decide to freeze its dividend at $2. 8 per share or even potentially reduce the dividend at FPL’s annual meeting. Kate had previously valued FPL with a â€Å"hold† recommendation three weeks earlier with the belief that FPL will either keep its dividend payout at $2. 48 or slightly increase it. However, with the news of this new rumor about FPL dividends, FPL stock price fell by 6% because a freeze of the dividend would mean that FPL would end a 47-year streak of ann ual dividend increases. Now Kate is reconsidering her â€Å"hold† rating and contemplated issuing a new updated report to revise her investment recommendation. It is now to decided how a change, if any, to the current dividend policy would affect shareholders, which option would have the greatest benefit to the shareholders and FPL, and what should be advised to investors with regard to FPL stock. Two theories of dividends come up with the FPL Group. The first theory is the Signaling Hypothesis and the second theory would be the Clientele Effect. The Signaling Theory is essentially the theory that managers of a certain company have better information and are more informed internally about a firms future prospects than the public stockholders. Future dividends are paid out of future profits, so any change in dividends to be paid is viewed as an indication of what future profits are going to be. Thus, when dividends are increased or decreased, stock prices tend to increase or decrease. The second theory relevant to the FPL group dividend policy is the Clientele Effect. Different clienteles of stockholders favor diverse dividend payout ratios. Different firms also have altering ways of calculating and paying out dividends. Thus, when a firm switches its payout ratio a current clientele will leave and a different clientele will join. The rule of thumb is that if more investors leave or leave faster than a new clientele could replace them, then there could be a temporarily depressed share price. There are two important issues that are facing the FPL Group in the May of 1994. The first is the concerns of potential competition resulting from industry deregulation and the second is the reexamination of a high dividend payout ratio already previously noted. The arrival of retail wheeling from the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 threatens to change the shape of the entire electric utilities industry. The Florida Public Service Commission is not currently considering a retail wheeling proposal, but the current trend in the industry is to increase the competition. The implementation of such a proposal, however, would expose FPL to numerous competitors and possible losses, for example, as shown in California; California had already implemented a retail wheeling program and the program had a severe adverse effect on the three major utilities in that state. Competing with rival utilities must now be a primary concern of FPL and FPL now needs to ensure that it has the ability to meet the challenge of competition from both in state and out of state providers. The current payout ratio is too high from FPL’s perspective because they need the extra capital to be able to fund new projects if the new wheeling regulations were to be implemented. FPL just could not afford to pay out 90% of its earnings given the possible need to expand in the face of new competition. Although FPL has had success in the past and present, the threat of retail wheeling means FPL must hold on to cash. Continuing a high payout ratio just isn’t feasible because of the severe challenges FPL would face if the retail wheeling plans were put into action. FPL must be prepared for this eventuality, so FPL needs the funds to ensure financial stability while protecting future profitability. A lower payout ratio would allow FPL to have the capital necessary to hedge itself from losing big to increasing competition. The problem now lies in the confidence of investors if FPL were to cut dividends. It is to believe that FPL will indeed cut their dividends or freeze them at the least to insure financial stability in times where the future is uncertain. The additional retained earnings from a reduction or halt of dividend payout will open opportunities for FPL to compete in a new open market, reduce their debt ceiling for added cash to fund and expand new opportunities for growth and allow for a more industry standard payout ratio for future growth. This may not at first be what a shareholder would want to see, but the positive outlook for the long run, outweigh the negative impacts of the short run. As a result of this analysis, FPL looks to be a very reliable investment for the future with a positive upside for future growth potential; however the only drawback would be how much exactly a dividend cut would actually affect the initial stock price, which is hard to tell. Kate Stark should absolutely keep her â€Å"hold† recommendation on FPL stock for the previous conceived reasons. There are no notions to believe FPL is in any urgent financial trouble or that there will be a drastic dividend cut. FPL’s stock will fall with the announcement of a dividend freeze or reduction; it is just a matter of how much. There is an upside potential for FPL and there is evidence that they will be prepared for more competition. The FPL stock price again will drop initially with the announcement of a dividend freeze or reduction, but â€Å"hold† on to the stock to not take a loss, and continue to â€Å"hold† the stock because the FPL group provides sound evidence that the stock price will continue to rise in the near future. References: Welch, Jonathan B., and Anand Venkateswaran. The dual sustainability of wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13.5 (2009): 1121-1126. Soosay, Claudine, Andrew Fearne, and Benjamin Dent. Sustainable value chain analysis–a case study of Oxford Landing from â€Å"vine to dine†. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 17.1 (2012): 68-77. Pitman, Glen, et al. QFD application in an educational setting. International Journal of Quality ; Reliability Management (2013). Plant, Robert, Leslie Willcocks, and Nancy Olson. Measuring e-business performance: towards a revised balanced scorecard approach. Information Systems and e-business Management 1.3 (2003): 265-281. Evelyn, John J., and Neil J. DeCarlo. Customer focus helps utility see the light. Journal of Business Strategy 13.1 (1992): 8-12. Gupta, Neeraj J., and Christina C. Benson. Sustainability and competitive advantage: an empirical study of value creation. (2011). ;

Friday, September 6, 2019

Special Education Reflection Essay Example for Free

Special Education Reflection Essay Special Education 332 (Education and Inclusion of Individuals with Special Needs) has been enlightening for me as a secondary mathematics educator. In the beginning of the semester, my feelings towards special education were those of apathy and insensitivity. I now understand that my feelings were due to my lack of knowledge and my judgment based on stereotypes. I always knew that making fun of students with learning disabilities was wrong. However, I never felt that inclusion of special education students in general education classes was plausible or made sense. I felt that special education students belonged in their own classrooms; and that is why we have special education educators. As a prospective secondary mathematics educator, I felt that it was unfair that I would have special education students in my classes. I would rationalize my attitude by saying that I signed up to teach normal students, and that the special education students were not my problem or responsibility. I did not want to deal with them. I did not see them as individuals who seek meaning through learning. As a constructivist, my goal as an educator is to provide students with meaning by imparting knowledge. As I reflect on my feelings towards special education students, I ask myself why do I not see them in the same way. If they are students as well, why do I discriminate against them? Why is it, when I think about teaching students with learning disabilities, I get uncomfortable? It is due to my lack of knowledge of students with learning disabilities. It was not until I saw the movie (before our class) I Am Sam, my thoughts about people with learning disabilities started to change. The movie changed my perception that mentally challenged individuals are strange by nature because they do not seem to understand when people talk to them and is different from myself. The movie showed me that they do comprehend information, have feelings as I do, and most importantly, that I have wrongly stereotyped their differences. This course not only gave me the knowledge I needed to understand students with learning disabilities, I was also able to empathize with these students through active participation in the sensitivity activities. Participating in the activities during our class was eye opening; I was able to have a taste of what it was like for people with learning disabilities. I always believed that there was something wrong with people with learning disabilities, and thus classified them as abnormal. The activities made me realize that with their learning disability aside, they were no different from me. People with learning disabilities had their strengths and weaknesses, and I had mine. The activities, without fail, made me frustrated. I wanted to lash out at the world, and I always wondered why students with learning disabilities had emotional problems. I came to realize that people with learning disabilities live with their disabilities for the rest of their lives. That these sensitivity activities were only temporary for us, but it was reality for those dealing with the disabilities. This is what changed me the most, realizing this simple truth. Throughout my years at Lehigh, I have proclaimed that I have a passion to teach, to show students that mathematics is not difficult, and that they are able to understand mathematics. However, when it came to special education students, my philosophy changed, due to their learning disability. I was ignorant to the special education movement of inclusion, because I feared the idea of teaching students who were not normal. I use the word normal in quotations because I now realize that special education students are like anybody else, and that we, special and general education students alike, are all normal. There is nothing wrong with special education students. Special education students are individuals who desire to learn. My feelings towards special education students have also changed through my counseling psychology class. In the class I learned that every student, whether they are homosexuals, rape victims, Jewish, Christian, or special education students, are students. Every student should not be discriminated because of who they are; rather they should be treated as children who need to learn. I was annoyed to find out that students, who had special needs, were included in classes where teachers were not trained or educated and therefore did not know how to instruct these students. I strongly believe that the special education movement of inclusion will succeed only if general education educators become aware of what it means to have learning disabilities and understand the concept of universal design. One of the greatest tools that this class has given me is universal design. Universal design for learning is a process for considering the needs of all students in the classroom and designing curriculum, instruction, and evaluation with sufficient flexibility so that each student benefits (Turnbull, Turnbull, Shank, and Smith, 2004). I will not be able to teach my general education class with special education students in it, by using universal design to teach everyone. I believe that this tool is the most powerful one that will advance the inclusion of special education students in general education classrooms movement. Fortunately, I was placed in a classroom (for my pre-intern teaching experience) where there was a student who had learning disabilities, and was included in a general education classroom. I was able to experience having a special education student in a general education classroom. Through this experience, I was able to get to know the student, and saw that he was an awesome kid. I liked him so much because despite his IEPs, he impressed me with his determination to learn and get good grades. He was a special education student who sought meaning through learning. My transformation became most apparent to me in writing my advocacy letter. I wanted to condemn the publisher of the Website and give him a piece of my mind. How dare he condone such blasphemy? Does he not see the damaging affects that his Website has on the special education community? What I did not see was that I was just like him once. I was also ignorant and apathetic towards students with learning disabilities. Even though, I understand special education students better than I had in the past and empathize with them, I must be careful on how I educate others. How can expect others to listen to me and change their views if I do it in a way that makes them defensive immediately? I have to be sympathetic towards those once in my position, and must communicate myself to produce a change in their view of students with learning disabilities. Furthermore, I must not become disillusioned into thinking that I have learned everything about students with learning disabilities and that I have done a complete one-eighty in my view of these students. There was several times where I caught myself using the term retarded, in describing something that was unintelligent. I must understand that my advocacy towards this issue will only grow if I continue to find out more about learning disabilities, to watch what I say, and to be careful when trying to teach others to change their views. Overall, I must admit that I have been blessed from taking this course. I feel that I have grown throughout the course of the class, where I once stereotyped students with learning disabilities to understanding students with disabilities. Many people judge and classify what they do not understand, and through that ignorance is birthed. I am thankful that I have taken this class as I have become aware of my ignorance and have a deeper understanding and acceptance of those with learning disabilities, inside and outside of the classroom. References Turnbull, R. , Turnbull, A. , Shank, M. , Smith, S. J. (2004). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Todays Schools. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Factors which affect international trade operation in Africa

Factors which affect international trade operation in Africa The International Day of peace which was established by a U.N resolution in 1982, and is marked every year on September 21, is a global even whose activities are significant in highlighting the worldwide efforts towards conflict resolution and peace building.[Diaspora 2008] This day is more concern with African continent which most of place conflict have taken place. That there are troubles in Africa for quite decades even after several countries in the continent went through change from colonialism to self-government, is not a deniable reality. 2.0 Political Stability in Africa As described in the first essay, country with political stability, donors will trust that country and they will invest a lot. The larger company can transfer they investment to that country, also investor can return their profit back to the communities, and will boost the sectors which it almost died of is in bad shape. Country with political stability economy will grow; this is due to investor will invest more as long as they feel secure on their investment. People of the respect country will be benefited by get knowledge which transferred from the investors. Countries that can produce a product at the lowest possible coast will be able to gain a larger share in the market. Therefore an incentive to produce efficiently arises. This will help standards of the product to increase and consumers will have a good quality product to consume. More employment could be generated as the market for the countries goods widens through trade. International trade helps generate more employment through the establishment of newer industries to cater to the demands of various countries. This will help countries bring down their unemployment rates. However it could lead to a more rapid depletion of exhaustible natural resources. As countries begin to up their production levels, natural resources tend to get less. 2.1 Assessment of political stability on international trade in Africa 2.1.1 Peace and Stability Tanzania is one example of the country among sub Saharan Africa which economic and political stability is stable. Multi party democracy adopted in 1992 has not disturbed the peaceful political climate of the country. This is why FDI are very interested with country situation and invest a lot on different sectors, such as Mining Industries, beverage industries, telecommunications companies, NGOs and so on. 2.1.2 Labour skills and availability International Trade is doing well; this is because of access to skilled labour which is a key priority for companies competing in African economies. Tanzania has a long term commitment to make sure development on training and educated specialists is going well. The government put more budget of education sector in order to improve education and improve human capabilities and encourage technology transfer as a precondition for enhancing productivity of investment and attaining the desired level of competitiveness. [http://www.tic.co.tz/] 2.1.3 Private sector development Tanzania has notable itself among of few African countries that have thoroughly transformed their economies. Achievement of these reforms is imitated in the countrys strong macroeconomic fundamentals every time increasing growth rates, consistent falling inflation and increasing inflow of FDI. One of the factors that contributed to this achievement is the countrys unwavering commitment to build a strong private sector. [http://www.tic.co.tz/] 2.1.4 Infrastructure Facilities Tanzania put infrastructure as one of the key investment drivers of country is trying very hard to improve. 2.1.5 Stable Macroeconomic performance Tanzania had been caring out successful economic and structural reforms, which have improved economic performance and sustained growth. These achievements are based on solid foundations of political and economic reform undertaken by the government since 1986, placing Tanzania in a position where a prolonged period of high GDP growth rates is expected. In additional, Tanzania has a stable fiscal regime with sustainable level of inflation. [http://www.tic.co.tz/] 3.0 Political Instability in Africa overview Regarding political instability in African Country, it is also undeniable that African continent has gone thru some tough situation during fifty years past. But the fact is almost African cases regarding political instability the major cause of problem is leadership. And because of this African freedom heroes come to dictators, while African natural resources, politics of elimination and scarcity to slope the balance of authority continues to control the public globe. Moreover, these difficulties have been pointed out due to ordinary Africans leaders who already edged and they dont want to retire. Political instability in Africa may be obliged much of its reason to internal factors, though the interpenetration of internal and external aspect especially geo-political and economic comfort of the international community always play a major role in undermining the vey procedure and society that are expected to care for democracy and to inspire a sense of stability for community development in Africa. In combination to such issues as unequal development, poverty, disease, violence and the scheming tendencies of the local best, political and economic stability in Africa is continually under threat is though not emanating from inside the continent but as of external interests whose dryness for African resources, continue to figure the dynamics in areas connected to governance. Resources in Africa if fine managed are able of providing for its entered population, therefore the potentials for an extra stable environment, nevertheless, it is well recognized that stolen riches from Africa n frequently end up in banks abroad. [African Focus Bulletin, 2006], exist it money stolen by the political selected (case of Mobutu of Zaire, Abacha of Nigeria, and Moi of Kenya, just to state a few or the current Kibaki regime Anglo-leasing scandals in Kenya), they still end up in banks in the western capitals. 3.1 Africans leadership problem and political instability The African political instability and former related problems is basically an outcome of its leadership trouble. African governments are run in ways that have been staring as far from the modern western state structure [Osei Tutu, 2004] Domestic issues play a major role in the changeover. These domestic issues frequently variety as of corrupt rulers, repressions, a majestic legacy, distended states, and inadequate political structures and an obliteration of democracy [diamond, Linz, and Lipset 1989; Diamond and Plattner 1999]. However, the international framework often plays a vital role in both the changeover in general and the attendance of violence in exacting [Lupo, 2004] 3.2 Africans economy and political instability Despite the miserable predictions, most African economies are exploiting well even though a few country cases are still experiencing hard times in terms of political stability, economic growth and challenges posed by poverty and diseases, trade quantity and foreign investments have enlarged over time. However the political instability in Africa, which as well underpins the economic development frequently, has strong associates to internal and external distinctive interests time and again. Africas resource in this case has never been its approval, but a nuisance. These is no justification for the under development of the continent even as it sits on huge natural resources. [Rodney, W. (1981)] 3.3 Africa Political violence and political instability As an effect, the legitimate frameworks and state institutions have been meddle with, in order to generate an uneven play field alongside the opposition. Some of these procedures have seen irregular violence during electioneering era, leading to political instability. However the level of violence and the mode in which they are perpetrated differ from country as the recent elections in Uganda, Nigeria, Kenya and Zimbabwe can illustrate. [Mahamoud, 2006:15] With a lot of countries holding their third or fourth multi-party elections, internal power struggles have engaged a cruel dimension, thereby intimidating the very existence a lot of countries. Since the beginning of multi-party democracy in mainly African countries electoral procedures have been go together with political violence, as part of the democratisation process [Lupo, 2004; Huntington,1991]. Most violence is such cases are often state supported, to the advantage of the incumbent, while a variety of groups that hike for state power also intensely hired violence, in the form of informal groups, militias and gangs. In the circumstance of all the violence, it is the normal people who loose out in terms of lives and property. The calamity is that the political conflict is not about substitute political programmes that could address the main problems such as poverty, disease and illiteracy, but only a fight over who has right to use the state resources.[http://www.country-details .com/africa/zimbabwe-economy.php] 4.0 Analysis 4.1 International Trade within Political Instability in Africa Country with political instability will be hard for investor to invest. This is due to situation is not good for them. However other investors are attracted with situation and take advantage for the situation by starting to make business. The International companies who are suppliers of guns and weapon will their time to sell and pray to God situation remain the same for sack of the business. People killed each other but investors they dont care as longer they doing business. In other part they may support that conflict by provide some money for other part to make them be able to fight other side and war continue. So as we can see one side they will be in trouble due to the investments been destroyed in the war because of political instability, and other side they will be benefited. Some of countries remain poor because of political instability. This could be ethnic tension, tribalism or all out war. Country such as Zimbabwe, Somalia, Rwanda and others they involved with long-term conflicts, they have a little chance of developing. Some countries also crash ethnic divides that are a constant distraction de-stabilizing the region and end up of discouraging investment, one example is Sir Lanka. 4.2 Assessment of political instability on international trade in Africa There are often political factors involved in why some of African country such as Zimbabwe, Somalia Sudan, Ethiopia, and Burundi and other suffers. This is due to bad government. Governments need to do a lot of things to encourage development, they need to build and maintain infrastructure and raise and spend finance wisely on the right projects. When governments are inept at managing infrastructure, development is impossible. Nobody wants to build a factory in a city where the power could go out at any time. Zimbabwe and other mentioned country should do the same and also needs to set up their laws and business practices in a way that encourages investment. Some of the Factors which affect international trade operation in Africa Corruption International Trade Trade Laws Political Instability Corruption Corruption is something which frustrating, disheartening and fundamentally disempowering investors. When government become loose on the simple process such as customs officials which everyone knows about, it end up of make life difficult to investors and business in general. In African countries this is common and is needs to be stopped and my country tried very hard to make it happened. [makewealthhistory n.d] Trade Laws Trade Laws it is largely a political matter. Sir Walter Raleigh famously said whosoever commands the trade of the world commands the riches of the world and hence the world itself Political instability Political instability plays a role in why some countries like Somalia and others remain poor. This could be ethnic tension, tribalism, or all out war. Needless to say, countries with long-term conflicts such as the ones in Somalia or Afghanistan have little chance of developing unless otherwise. [makewealthhistory n.d] I tried to make research for some of the African countries as follow SOMALIA Somalia involved with war since of Siad Barres regime in 1991. A lot of people in Somalia suffered due of conflict which causes long-term impact of disturbed peace, security and stability also development. This conflict cause a lot of problem and continued loss of life which end up of intermittent fighting, famine, displacement of persons and the resultant flow of refugees. The conflicts affect also neighbors countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti, due to proliferation of small arms, huge influx of refugees many of whom are ex-soldiers its criminal target. Overall Somalia politically is unstable. After the collapse of the Somali government various factions decided to vie for control of Somalia, which resulted in chaos, clan warfare, and interplant fighting. Although Somalia is not as lawless as it was at the time when Barre as ousted Somali factions still continue to fight for control of the territory. Somalia is a much divided national that lacks any sense of cohesive government and therefore there is no real overall ideology of the country. Somalia is attempting to stabilize many of the internal conflicts that continue to prevail in the country along with attempting to create a political ideology and a foreign policy. Political uncertainty its like nightmare to investors. It does disturb FDI (foreign Direct Investment) flow of their investment plan together with private sector and economic growth because government owned those public sector units as well. If happened that country faced unstable political, many this goes wrong. In situation like this no investor will be interested to invest in Somalia Land. This is due to political instability which put FDI in hard situation to invest. This conflicts cost the horn Africa countries deeply in terms of security due to increase of groups of arms, due to influx of refugees and lost trade. However international and regional organizations such as the UN (United National) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority for Development) have come between for the aim of bring peace in the war torn country. According to [BBC conversation 29th December 2010 thru radio] American tried to make peace there but they failed due to Somalia arm group come together and fight American. Somalia is one of the nations that has struggled and still does today in order to function well. It is one of these are rare places where there is ongoing civil war and it has no central government. Somalia is in a state of anarchy because it had problems after their president got assassinated in 1969, it has many economic problems, and native clans in Somalia are constantly fighting with their foes. If Somalia can solve these problems, it will be able to function very well and gain a government that will suite them well. UGANDA Another example is Uganda country. Iddi Amin President by then ruled the Government to manage all of Asian investors properties and commanded them to leave the country in short notice. This was applied to all whites investors, and even rich black. This was real bad to investors. Due to dictatorship mode of government the country came down economically and eventually to poor position. After war he decided to attack neighbor country which is Tanzania and caused a war. Situation become worse, Tanzania and Uganda war rendered Tanzania economy to fall drastically. It takes time for Tanzania to recover due to many country resource used on that war. Frankly it will be difficult for investors to withstand in violence countries. Economic growth needs political stability which will attract investors to invest in a particular country. BURUNDI Another example is Rwanda and Burundi. People killed and neighbor countries also affected due to the guns and other dangerous tools goes to them and used for robbed and so on. Rwanda war was so bad because it was tribe war (within Rwandas people). It was very difficult for investor to invest there or do international business there. They so cruel killed themselves, kill religion leaders and so on. Lets look at Zimbabwe; Mugabe makes things worse thereby take away the investors investments which most of them was farm. Those investors were doing very well on that sector. Mugabe was trying to divide the land to the Zimbabwe farmers without knowing that they dont have money to invest there and at the end they fail to run the business. Look at Zimbabwe now is terrible. There was violence which has badly hurt the commercial agricultural sector the traditional cause of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs, revolving Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. The EU and the US give food aid on humanitarian foundation. Badly needed bear from the IMF has been suspended as of the governments arrears on long-ago loans and the governments unwillingness to ratify reforms that would become stable the economy. The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe normally prints money to fund the budget deficit, causing the official annual inflation rate to rise from 32% in 1998, to 133% in 2004, 585% in 2005, passed 1000% in 2006, and 26000% in November 2007, and to 11.2 million percent in 2008. In the meantime, the official exchange rate chop from approximately 1(revalued) Zimbabwean dollar per US dollar in 2003 to 30,000 per US dollar in September 2007[ country-details n.d] Many people in Zimbabwe they dont have jobbed, currency is in bad shape due to inflation. Before Mugabe took land from investor, people were employed on that industry, the difference from now there is no job due to those who given that land they dont have money to run the business. Zimbabwe is other country which has political problem. Zimbabwe is the second highest HIV infection fate, per capita, in the world. Zimbabwe has experienced the breakdown of law and order, unemployment of 65%, inflation104%, the collapse of the economy and the health delivery system. Human rights abuses in the form of violence and rape have continued unabated and are carried out with impunity by the ruling party activists. Voices against basic human rights abuses speak at great personal risk. It has been established that the effects of the current situation have impacted negatively on the health and well being of the people through increased stress, little or no access to primary health care facilities, unemployment, hyper-inflation and a general sense of helplessness and hopelessness. All this is due of political instability. [gateway n.d] Zimbabwe there are group of people have good life, but majority are not enjoying anything. They have very difficult life. Most of people they live in poverty and cause of anger among them towards government. These anger cause political instability and end up of forming crime revolutions and so on. [wiki.answers n.d] INFLATION-ZIMBABWE Zimbabwean inflation rates (official) since independence Date Rate Date Rate Date Rate Date Rate Date Rate Date Rate 1980 7% 1981 14% 1982 15% 1983 19% 1984 10% 1985 10% 1986 15% 1987 10% 1988 8% 1989 14% 1990 17% 1991 48% 1992 40% 1993 20% 1994 25% 1995 28% 1996 16% 1997 20% 1998 48% 1999 56.9% 2000 55.22% 2001 112.1% 2002 198.93% 2003 598.75% 2004 132.75% 2005 585.84% 2006 1,281.11% 2007 66,212.3% 2008 231,150,888.87% (July) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwean_dollar Hyperinflation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwean_dollar Zimbabwe Economic Overview The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued official exchange rate, hyperinflation, and bare store shelves. GDP -real growth rate -6.2% estimated in 2008. GDP (official exchange rate): $4,397 billion Note: In 2009 the Zimbabwean dollar was taken out of circulation, making Zimbabwes GDP at the official exchange rate a highly inaccurate statistic.[Source: C/A World Factbook] http://www.country-details.com/africa/zimbabwe-economy.php EXTERNAL INFLUENCES PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS Political policies and legal practices Culture factors Economic forces Geographic influences4.4 Economy factors affecting international business operations OPETATIONS OBJECTIVES STRATEGY MEANS Economy analysis Economic indicators Economy system Economic freedom Transition to a market economy Before Investor decide to invest to any country especial African country always they tried to check of follow Gross National Income (GNP) GNP helps to measure income generated together by total domestic production towards as the international trade production activities of local companies. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) GDP is the broadest measure of economic activity for a country. GDP helps investor to assessing countries in which the output of the multinational sector is a significant share of activity. Improving the Power of GNI GNI is a robust estimator of an economys absolute performance. Here international manager has to be careful because GNI can mislead when he/she tried to compare countries. For example, manager to compare economic power of USA and Tanzania will not give manager a good result. So in order for manager to get good view should adjust it for taken the number of people in that country, their growth rate, and their cost of living also economic sustainability. Per Capital conversion Manager will use this indicator to which helps to explain an economys performance according of number of people who lives in such country. Purchasing Power Parity Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is the number of units of a countrys currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market that one unit of income would buy in the other country. [Daniel, Sullivan et. al 2009pp186-202] 5.0 Effect of Political Instability Opportunities could be caused by political instability 5.1 Conflict resolution and peace building initiatives In terms of conflicts in Africa, many hot spots are recovering, and making big leaps towards peaceful coexistence. Even though there are some pockets of unresolved cases like Somalia, Darfur, Congo and Northern Uganda among others, there are encouraging examples such as Sierra Leone, Rwanda, and Southern Sudan. In this context Africa is undergoing a complex process of multiple transformations. Solution to some of these cases has been found from within, coupled with external support. For this reason, it can be argued that part solution to the conflict situation and political instability in Africa lies in the west. More specifically is for the western governments to address the issue of arms manufacture and sale of arms, weapons to Africa and to address the conduct of their multinational involved in extractive activities at the expense of African lives. On the same breath, we cannot talk of health problems in Africa when countries in the west have not seen the sense and subsequent impl ications of dumping hazardous technologies and products in Africa 5.2 International Trade in Africa Some of the country they take advantage of the political instability situation to make money by doing international business in that such country. In both situations, political change creates systemic risks that impact all firms whose activities are affected by the political system. System changes dont necessarily create political risks that reduce potential profits. Elections and policy shifts can create opportunities for foreign investors. For example in 1990s a newly elected government in Argentina initiated a radical program to deregulate and privatize the countrys state-centered economy. Investors who accepted the risk and pursued the resulting opportunities prospered as Argentina became more democratic. There is one case in our International Business model talk about china. That case trace about the development of China, where political change has created opportunities in several areas, including market potential and performance. This of course, that taking advantage of such at tractive opportunities entails taking risks in a country where political and legal complications still pose roadblocks to profitability.[Daniel, Sullivan et al (2009) pg155] When other countries suffer of political instability, other countries enjoy that situation very much. Lets say country faced political instability and happened there is a war, some of international companies from other country they start to do business by selling guns, and other things which needed in situation like that. The neighbour countries get advantage of when refugee run to them, they get support from international support programme. The people of such neighbour country they will be benefited by get food, clothes, and other human needs thru refugee. However those neighbour countries may suffer due to refugee may transfer the conflict in that country. Unemployment When country faced political instability unemployment rate will be high, and country will not be able to offer job to the people. So when investors who they ready to take risk move to that country will be easy for them gets cheap labor. People they dont have job and they need money means they will do any kind of job to get money. However countries that are unable to create jobs for their citizens create a risky business environment. So investors whose will take risk to invest in such country must take precaution for robbery and thief due to people are desperate to get money. Generally, people out of work and unable to find jobs depress economic growth, create social pressures, and provoke political uncertainty. Inflation Inflation cause rise in prices measured against a standard level of purchasing power. Country in political instability inflation will be high and the investor who doing there they have power to set their price (high) and consumer they dont have choice. Life will be expensive and investor who doing business there are benefited with high price of commodities. People they work to them and get salary and at the end of day they give back that money to them. This is to say foreign will be able to transfer resources to home country indirect. Debt The debt for the country which faced political instability growing because government dont have money, and end up of borrows money from the financial institution. This will be benefit to those countries which hold those financial institutions such as IFM and so on. Income distribution GNI or PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) will be low due is calculate with which income the average person earns. Country with political instability not everyone is average, neither indicator tells us what share of income goes to what segments of the population. So the big share will go to foreigner whose they have big share of money, and this will be benefit to them.[Daniel, Sullivan et. al pp196-203] Production factors move Capital especially short-term capital is the most internationally mobile production factor. In country with political instability companies and private individuals primarily transfer capital because of differences in expected return. This situation cause of transfer capital back home or to another country and will be benefit to foreigners due to some of country when foreigner came to invest, government allow them to make business for the first three years without of paying tax. The countries with political instability foreigner advantage of this situation and invest for only three years without tax and move to another country. This happened because they not secure with political situation. Analyzing Risk In between political instability, one country risk may be another opportunity to other country. For example companies which provide security services such as guard services, alarm systems, insurances and guns may get the big opportunities of sales where the victim country suffer in war.[Daniel, Sullivan et. al (2009)p 502] 6.0 RECOMMENDETION An African countries leader has to make sure political in their country is stable so that FDI can transfer they technology, skill and knowledge to the local people thru International Business.