Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Discuss how RAID can be implimented Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discuss how RAID can be implimented - Essay Example back is its high cost due to use of a separate processor and software which gives the RAID system greater strength to handle recovery and disk rebuilding. Another approach to implementing hardware RAID is IOC. The advantage of controller-based RAID is that it is cheaper because it simply uses processors on the disk controllers. However, controller based RAID is restricted by the power of the processor and the memory bandwidth of the controller, which makes it slower than IOP RAID. On the other hand, software RAID can be implemented using a disk controller driver or an operating system. Software RAID is cheaper than hardware RAID but is not as reliable. Software RAID may be useful in small applications where quality performance is not really expected. It is used in the drivers of the hard disk controllers and is independent of the operating system. Operating System based RAID uses a RAID engine in the operating system. Both disk controller driver and operating system driver RAID are dependent on system processor which can be specifically used in low performance and lightly loaded

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Worlds lone superpower

Worlds lone superpower In order to answer this question successfully we must answer it in four distinct sections. In the first section we will examine the debate over whether the United States is a hegemonic power or an imperial power. In the second section we will look at the main sources of Americas strength, examining the extent of its military power as well the power of its economy and the extent of its soft power. In the third section we will examine the nature of American weakness in the international arena, pointing to the Iraq War of 2003 and the War on Terror as two areas that expose American weakness clearly in todays world. In the fourth and final section we will analyse the rise of China, considering the arguments that this can be seen either as a threat or an opportunity. We will conclude that the United States is the worlds lone superpower and that the rise of China need not be viewed as a threat. According to Nexon and Wright modern international relations scholars operate with the assumption that whether the United States is an empire, the preeminent power in a unipolar system, or the leader of a hegemonic order, (this) shapes the basic dynamics of international politics[1]. Some have even gone as far as to suggest that the United States is simply a modern day imperial power. Hardt and Negri argue that imperial tendencies go right to the heart of the American constitution. They offer us the concept of imperial sovereignty and suggest that perhaps the fundamental characteristic of imperial sovereignty is that its space is always open[2]. They examine the constitutional history of the United States and find that each phase of its constitutional history marks a step toward the realisation of imperial sovereignty[3]. Hill has observed that this is a fundamental difference between the United States and China. It is commonplace to observe that the United States, for example, has c onsistently believed that its own values should be exported, whereas China has never felt the need to proselytise, despite its own conviction of superiority[4]. Hardt and Negri argue that the constitution of the United States has strong imperial tendencies and that this means that the United States is well placed in terms of acquiring a large Empire. However, these imperial tendencies are fundamentally different from previous imperialist nations. It is imperial because the U.S. constitutional project is constructed on the model of rearticulating an open space and reinventing incessantly diverse and singular relations in networks across an unbounded terrain[5]. The new imperialism is based upon open spaces and integrated networks, by which they refer primarily to the globalised world economy and it is the lead that the United States offers in this sphere that provides her with the power to stand at the head of the international community. Empire today does not mean anything like what we have always meant by empire. It occupies no lands; it has no center (not even in Washington); it doesnt depend on tightly controlled satellite governments; it is a postmodern entity[6]. Chalmers Johnson offers us another theory of the relationship between the US and Empire. Chalmers argues that the United States has not sought to actively conquer territories. In more modern times, unlike many empires, we did not annex territories at all. Instead we took (or sometimes merely leased) exclusive military zones within territories, creating not an empire of colonies but an empire of bases[7]. Chalmers goes on to show that the Department of Defence has admitted to the existence of some 725 overseas bases, but that many of these bases are ill equipped indeed to actively participate in any war. Instead these bases are the headquarters for our proconsuls, visible manifestations of our imperial reach[8]. We can see therefore that for Chalmers the imperialism of the United States is most tellingly portrayed by the extensive reach of the American military base, not as an active fighting force but instead as a way for the United States to spread its imperial tentacles. However, n ot all scholars agree that the term Empire or imperialism is valid in depicting the role of the United States in the world. Andrew Hurrell agrees that notions of informal empire provide some analytical purchase[9] when looking at the type of power that the United States exhibits in the modern world. However, Hurrell is reluctant to use the term Empire when referring to the United States. It is analytically more useful to understand the United States as a hegemonic rather than an imperial power, because doing so forces the analyst to focus directly on the crucial questions of negotiation, legitimacy and followership'[10]. Even if the United States is not an Empire, its sources of strength are clear. Brookes and Wohlforth have argued that the sources of American strength are so varied and so durable that U.S. foreign policy today operates in the realm of choice rather than necessity to a greater degree than any other power in modern history[11]. Unquestionably the military might of the United States is one critical factor. After the end of the Cold War America invested heavily in building up its military strength. The Americans were determined to increase their military strength to such a level that the United States would be able to overcome any enemy or combination of enemies. In 1999 the United States declared that its military expenditures now are larger than all other countries combined[12] and this attitude encapsulated the mood of the public and of Capitol Hill with regard to the military. After the Cold War, the measure of adequacy was no longer simply military strength; it had become military supremacy, a position endorsed by liberals as well as conservatives, Democrats as well as Republicans[13]. However, some have argued that the importance of military strength in defining the extent of a nations relative power in the international system is declining. The factors of technology, education, and economic growth are becoming more significant in international power, while geography, population and raw materials are becoming somewhat less important[14]. Fortunately for the United States it is well placed in all these new areas as well as continuing to exert more traditional forms of hard military power. The economy of the United States for example is still one that is immensely powerful and it accounts for over one-fifth of the world gross product. Joseph Nye has argued that as the nature of power undergoes transformations in the modern world traditional notions of hard power are becoming intertwined with the idea of soft power. A state may achieve the outcomes it prefers i n world politics because other states want to follow it or have agreed to a situation that produces such effects. In this sense, it is just as important to set the agenda and structure the situations in world politics as to get others to change in particular cases[15]. One important area of this soft power is the extent to which the United States is considered to be the legitimate world leader, not only the moral leader of the world but also its undoubted trend-setter. The pervasive influence of the United States cannot only be felt in the power of its military or in the strength of its economy but in its ability to inspire the peoples of other nations to strive for the same ideals for which it strives. On this viewing the cultural influence of the United States is just as important as its other sources of power. Unquestionably globalisation has allowed many non-Western people the chance to get their hands on many Western products and ideas. The important part of this is that many o f these people voluntarily choose to embrace Western ideas and products and this is undoubtedly an important source of strength for the United States. Despite such overwhelming strength some scholars do point to sources of weakness. Michael Ignatieff has argued that the Iraq War of 2003 is a turning point in American history. He claims that the war is imperial in its character but that an imperial war goes against the very heart of American values. A role once played by the Ottoman Empire, then by the French and the British, will now be played by a nation that has to ask whether in becoming an empire it risks losing its soul as a republic[16]. The American nation was born in the struggle against Empire and if it itself turns imperial then this could prove to be a source of weakness for the United States as it would heavily dilute its national character. The United States would then be vulnerable of falling into the same traps as many Empires throughout history and it is only by maintaining its anti-imperial character that the nation can guard against this slide into Empire. Since the demise of the Soviet Union, which constituted an active threat to the United States, the greatest threat for the United States has clearly come from terrorism. Since the attacks on September 11 the level of this perceived threat has only escalated and it led George W. Bush to declare a war on terror. This war on terror has exposed some fundamental sources of American weakness. It has shown that despite the awesome military strength of the United States establishing order in the aftermath of the Iraq war was very difficult. In fact, September 11 showed that at times the United States was not even able to guarantee the safety of its citizens within its own borders, despite its enormous power, strength and resources. The war on terror has also raised questions about the ability of the US military to deal with the Al-Qaeda threat, which certainly cannot overwhelm the US military but at the same time the military cannot defeat the terrorists and their guerilla tactics when they encounter them. Indeed many have argued that the invasion s of Afghanistan and Iraq have been highly counterproductive in combating terrorism. Michael Scheuer, a 20-year CIA veteran has argued that US military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have left both countries seething with anti-U.S. sentiment, fertile grounds for the expansion of Al-Qaeda and kindred groups. He adds that the invasions were exactly what bin Laden and his associates had hoped for, since they gave new evidence to Muslims that Americans were the new crusaders, foreign infidels bent on conquest[17]. This is a major problem for the United States, because even though it does not affect Americas military power it has led to a loss of soft power for the United States. The invasion of Iraq in particular led to splits in the Security Council and has impeded the efforts of the United States to act as the worlds moral authority and thereby set the worlds agenda. Other actions such as the creation of Guantà ¡namo Bay and the abuses at Abu Ghraib have further damaged the credi bility of the United States to proclaim itself as the worlds greatest champion of human rights. This has created a backlash against American values, especially in the Islamic world and has led to the perception that American influence is corrupting and negative. Another potential source of weakness for the United States is the precarious nature of its current economic condition and the doubts about the long-term sustainability of public and private debt levels. If the United States loses its position at the top of the global economy this could have serious implications for the extent global power that the United States can wield. Let us now turn to examine the rise of China. Few countries are poised to have more impact on the world over the next 15-20 years than China. If current trends persist, by 2025 China will have the worlds second largest economy and will be a leading military power[18]. The question is whether the United States will view the expansion of Chinese power as a threat or whether the Americans and Chinese can build a positive and mutually beneficial partnership. If they are able to do the latter then one could argue that China does not stand in the way of continued US global hegemony. The two nations could engage to a significant extent and create sustained worldwide economic growth, solve regional disputes and also work together to combat the threats posed by rogue states and terrorism. However, if tensions between the two Pacific powers worsen, the whole of Eastern Eurasia could become divided in a new cold war, and the prospects for confrontation and conflict would seem certain to rise[19 ]. Webber and Smith have shown that the Bush administration certainly recognised the potential threat that an increasingly powerful China could pose. In March 2001, Donald Rumsfeld, the Secretary of Defence in the Bush administration, presented a strategic assessment which suggested that China was to be regarded as Americas principal potential adversary and that greater priority, consequently, needed to be given to long-range power projection forces capable of deployment in the Asia-Pacific region[20]. Indeed a report from the United States Congress has shown that the threat from China is not solely confined to the field of the military, but that the vast growth of the Chinese economy and the manner in which it conducts trade with America could also have potentially harmful effects upon the American economy. Another concern are the large and growing U.S. trade deficits with China, which have risen from $10.4 billion in 1990 to an estimated $232 billion in 2006, and are viewed by man y Members as an indicator that China uses unfair trade practices (such as an undervalued currency and subsidies to domestic producers) to flood U.S. markets with low-cost goods and to restrict U.S. exports, and that such practices threaten American jobs, wages, and living standards[21]. Peerenboom has argued that this view of China as a threat and the resulting containment strategy is highly likely to backfire. US policy will have to abandon neoconservative policies that seek to contain China, which is the surest way to bring about the kind of military conflict and economic trade war that all hope to avoid. Portraying China as a threat that must be contained fuels animosity and undermines those constituencies in China working to ensure that Chinas rise to power is peaceful[22]. Indeed, Peerenboom argues that for all the possible sources of conflict, there are many areas where the interests of both parties are aligned[23]. Despite the assessments by the Bush administration Friedberg convincingly argues that the relationship between the United States and China is more likely to be characterised by both co-operation and conflict in the future as it has been since 1989. The fundamentally mixed character of the U.S.-China relationship will not change very much, perhaps o scillating within a fairly narrow range, with periodic shifts toward greater cooperation or increased competition, but without a clear trend in either direction[24]. If this is indeed the case then the prospects for continued US global hegemony look promising. The signs are that the two countries should be able to work together effectively to tackle the worlds problems and this will mean that the United States will be likely to be the senior partner in the relationship. The ability of the United States to continue to set the global agenda will be vital in its quest for continued hegemony. In Conclusion, we have seen that the United States continues to be the worlds lone superpower. The extent of its military power is staggering and unseen in the worlds history to this point. However, the United States continues to be the worlds lone superpower because allied to this awesome military strength is a powerful economy and soft power that can shape the dictates of policy across the world. Clearly the United States has areas of weakness and not only that but they are exposed often and frankly in todays media and in academic circles. The invasion of Iraq and the War on Terror have shown that even overwhelming military, economic and political power are not sufficient to win the battles of the 21st Century, that are often as much about winning hearts and minds on Arab streets as they are about beating Islamic fundamentalists based in caves in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, despite these obvious deficeiencies there is no question that the sources of American strength are so overwhelming that it continues to be the worlds lone superpower. It is for this reason that the United States does not need to fear the rise of China, even if some in the Bush administration did view China as a threat. Friedberg is right to argue that the relationship between the two countries will be characterised by conflict and co-operation, but the attitude of the United States towards China will be a critical factor in determining whether the 21st Century is marked by cooperation or another Cold War. If the United States manages to deal with China effectively to tackle the worlds problems, then it will continue to be the senior and most influential partner in the relationship between the two countries. Bibliography Hill, Christopher, The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy (2003) Webber, Mark, Smith, Michael, Foreign Policy in a Transformed World (2002) Hurrell, Andrew, On Global Order (2007) Nexon, Daniel, Wright, Thomas, Whats at Stake in the American Empire Debate?, The American Political Science Review, 101 (2) (2007), pp.253-271 Hardt, Michael, Negri, Antonio, Empire (2000) Wohlforth, William Brookes, Stephen, American Primacy in Perspective, Foreign Affairs, 81 (4) (2002), pp.20-33 Bacevich, A.J., American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (2002) Nye, Joseph, Soft Power, Foreign Policy, 80 (1990), pp.153-171 Friedberg, Aaron, The Future of U.S.-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable?, International Security, 30 (2) (2005), pp.7-45 Johnson, Chalmers, The Sorrows of Empire (2004) Mann, Michael, Incoherent Empire (2005) Peerenboom, Randall, China modernises (2007) Websites: http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_2025/2025_Global_Trends_Final_Report.pdf http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=455 http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B03E6DA143FF936A35752C0A9659C8B63sec=spon=pagewanted=1 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf Nexon, Daniel, Wright, Thomas, Whats at Stake in the American Empire Debate?, The American Political Science Review, 101 (2) (2007), pp.253 Hardt, Michael, Negri, Antonio, Empire (2000), pp.167 Hardt, Michael, Negri, Antonio, Empire (2000), pp.168 Hill, Christopher, The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy (2003), pp.18 Hardt, Michael, Negri, Antonio, Empire (2000), pp.182 http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=455 Johnson, Chalmers, The Sorrows of Empire (2004), pp.23 Johnson, Chalmers, The Sorrows of Empire (2004), pp.24 Hurrell, Andrew, On Global Order (2007), pp.262 Hurrell, Andrew, On Global Order (2007), pp.262 Wohlforth, William Brookes, Stephen, American Primacy in Perspective, Foreign Affairs, 81 (4) (2002), pp. 30-31 Bacevich, A.J., American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (2002), pp.126 Bacevich, A.J., American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (2002), pp.126 Nye, Joseph, Soft Power, Foreign Policy, 80 (1990), pp.154 Nye, Joseph, Soft Power, Foreign Policy, 80 (1990), pp.166 http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B03E6DA143FF936A35752C0A9659C8B63sec=spon=pagewanted=1 Mann, Michael, Incoherent Empire (2005), pp.xvii http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_2025/2025_Global_Trends_Final_Report.pdf:, pp.29 Friedberg, Aaron, The Future of U.S.-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable?, International Security, 30 (2) (2005), pp.8 Webber, Mark, Smith, Michael, Foreign Policy in a Transformed World (2002), pp.124 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf Peerenboom, Randall, China modernises (2007), pp.276 Peerenboom, Randall, China modernises (2007), pp.276 Friedberg, Aaron, The Future of U.S.-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable?, International Security, 30 (2) (2005), pp.37

Friday, October 25, 2019

This Life :: essays research papers

The American Revolution was largely economic and political in nature. The political reasons were that England neglected the colonies, taxation without representation and limitation of individual rights and privacy. Then there was the most important side the economic. There was trade restriction, mercantilism, and taxation. On the economic side of the revolution colonist acknowledged that natural laws should govern their economy. But only the southern colonies were bound to England in connection with tobacco trade. Outside of the southern colonies they made their way by trading outside the empire. And if they wanted to put this trade to a stop there would be a rebellion. Then mercantilism, which was the idea of directing all trade through England, was a restriction upon economic prosperity of New England colony. The major reason for this all is that the colonies gave up to England. England then taxed it colonies with many acts. Such as the Stamp Act passed in 1765 and led by prime Minster George Greenville, which affected every colonist. It imposed a tax on all legal documents like newspapers and marriage licenses. Other acts like Currency Act, which banned all paper currency, the Sugar Act in efforts to try to reduce smuggling. In 1776 William Pitt took over he was a popular in the colonies. He opposed things like the Stamp Act and thought colonist had the same rights as English citizens. But after suddenly becoming sick Charles Townsend took over and he was not concerned with the rights of the colonist and he just wanted to strengthen the Parliament. And he then convinced Parliament to pass a series of new laws taxing lead, paint, paper, glass, and tea imported by colonists. Then Sam Adams spoke out and said that Parliament was taxing illegally and the majority of the colonists agreed and a boycott started on British goods. And because of the Currency Act they left paper practically worthless. This is the main reason for the revolution. Then there was the political side, which was not as important leader into the American Revolution but still a key role that led into the revolution. The taxation without representation was one of the major reasons that led to the revolution. The British were taxing the colonies and they had no way of standing up for themselves. They had no representation in England so they were unable to stop any taxes or polices coming over from them. The plea of taxation without representation is how the colonists stood up to acts like the Stamp Act. The colonies were being neglected from England. They left them

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Principles of communication in adult social care setting Essay

Explain how communication affects relationships in an adult social care setting Relationships are important within a social care setting as residents need to feel that are in an environment where they are able to communicate confidence to any ember of staff. Communications between all staff are equally important due to changes to the needs of certain residents in relations to their care and support they need to receive. Communication is also used in informing doctors, social workers and other medical profession’s about changes with residents for example if: Mr smith medication had been changed and he was reacting to it, we could ring the doctors for help and advice for the best solution to help Mr Smith. . Understand how to meet communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of an individual . 1 Compare ways to establish the communication and language needs, wishes and preference of an individual There are different ways to establish communication with an individual by using verbal or non-verbal communication for example non-verbal communication such as sign language as people who are hard of hearing may be reassured by the use of sign. Interpreters can be used to help language barriers by ensuring all care and wishes are being protected such as religious rules and preferences. Together with this your body language is equally important as the way e present ourselves to people can set the tone of the conversation we are about to have. Verbal communication can also be used to ensure all needs, wishes and conversation with the resident. 2. Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication There are loads of different factors to consider when promoting effective communication, such as the hearing ability of the person in which you are talking to, the sight as many people follow your mouth while they are being spoke to if they are hard of hearing, the tone of your voice help explain the reason for the conversation. Speaking on the same level to help the resident from feeling intimidated. The environment is also a massive contributor in helping promote effective communication such as family and friends, or even what you hear on the radio or see on the television this can help by Just hearing someone’s voice or seeing things on the television you may feel that you are not alone and can comfort residence that may like to spend time within their own space, it can also help by following story lines within society 2. 3 Describe a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs. Different communication styles and methods while ensuring you meet the needs of an individual can be meet in different ways such as looking into someone’s eyes helps to establish there mood and feeling by the way they are looking to what you’re saying, there face can help explain how they are understanding what you are saying to them and can also indicate if they are in any pain or discomfort, tone of voice can also set the tone for the conversation weather it is informal or a formal conversation. Touch can also help to meet the needs of the individual as though touching someone ou can send different vibes such as care, affection, reassurance or even power over them. Body language is a other way to communicate to help meet the needs of an individual by sitting on the same level as someone you can make the situation more relaxed than standing tall over them which could make them feel intimidated. Research has shown that people pay more attention to facial expressions and tone of voice than spoken words, also behaviour is also an important as you must respect the individual no matter what day you are having you must remember that you need to emain professional. You can also communicate using verbal communication such as different styles of vocabulary, pitch and even the pitch of you voice while speaking to an individual. 2. Explain why it is important to respond to an individual’s reaction when communicating It is important to respond to an individual’s reactions while communicating with them as they may become scared, worried or even not understand what is been asked or said to them. They may also need to be comforted understand what is been asked or said, you can do this by nodding your head, aking eye contact or even repeating what has been said in the conversation. 3. Understand how to overcome barriers to communication

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Case Study †Motivation Essay

Introduction In this brief introduction, advice for James on how to motivate his Year 5 teachers will be framed by explaining the nature of goal, the dimension of the goal and how it should be set. Secondly, suggestions of the selection of Year 5 teacher will be given. Furthermore, various ways of rewarding the goal achievement will be mentioned while evaluating the role of James during the academic year and the application of goal setting. In addition, unintended consequences of the goal setting methods will be discussed and follow by a conclusion. Nature of goal, Dimension of the goal and how it should be set Refers to Locke (1990 and 1996), goal is an object or aim for an action is the definition of goal and it is something consciously want. Goal can be explained by internal and external factors , goals are thoughts with desired end internally and object or conditions sought externally while a job to be completed is as known as task (Locke 1990 and 1996). In this case, the goal of James is to boost his school average result in NAPLAN test (i.e. the 5 reporting sector ) therefore it is above the national average while the task is to select an appropriate teacher that is able to improve the results of the 5 reporting factors. Dimension of goals can be divided content and intensity and they are not easily separated (Locke 1990). Goal content means the actual object sought and psychological goal that an individual have (Locke 1990 and 1996). Content differs in qualitatively and quantitatively and degree of specificity (Locke 1990). A positive relationship between goal difficulties and performance is founded, the harder the goal is, the better the achievement (Locke 1996). The second factor is intensity. Intensity refers to the depth of the goal, such as scope and integration of the goal setting process and the importance of the goal, etc (Locke1990). Goals can be set according to S.M.A.R.T. which means that goals must be specific, measurable, assignable, realistic and time-related (Rouillard 2003). A specific goal should be details enough to mention what is to be achieved and accomplished, too general statement is insufficient to motive workers (Rouillard 2003).A goal should be measurable which is quantifiable and provide a standard for comparison while indicate whether the goal is reached (Rouillard 2003). Thirdly, an attainable goal should be able to achievable while challenging, a goal with extreme low and  high expectation is insufficient to motivate (Rouillard 2003). Realistic goal means it is practical, possible and achievable (Rouillard 2003). Time-related means to frame the goal with a given period, an out-dated goal has no effect on motivat ion (Rouillard 2003). In this case, James can set a goal like ‘improve 75% of year 5 students results with a grade improvement in the factors of reading, writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation and numeracy within one semester (6 months)’. Access of candidates In this case, the aim is to improve the students’ results therefore teacher effectiveness is the main consideration. Teacher effectiveness is a measure of teacher’s ability to produce an academic growth in a given context and situation (Stronge and Hindman 2006 and Bailey 2006). Various sectors are needed for evaluation. (i) Knowledge/ Teaching certification Richard has the highest degree compare to others and Richard is passionate about upgrading himself to a higher level. Moreover, Richard is familiar with the updated education syllabus as he has completed his bachelor degree few years ago. No specific information about Janice’s educational background is mentioned; it is assumed she has the lowest degree among candidates. Although Janice had attended some teacher training, she is not familiar and active about the updated educational changes and practices which makes her less competitive. Ivar has deep knowledge about psychology and enjoy high degree of reputation and he is a high achieving student which shows Ivar has adequate intelligence level. Refers to Mandeville and Liu cited in Campbell et al (2012), students who are taught by higher levels of teacher certification have better thinking skills and performance than the lower level of knowledge. From the above evaluation, Richard and Ivar are more knowledgeable. (ii) Personal ity Richard is young, enthusiastic, active, ambitious and competitive; Janice is mature, sociable with good personal skills, passionate but less active than Richard and Ivar is logical and rational but not good at communication. Personality is not suggested as a standard for selection as there is no direct relationship between personality and achievement of pupils (Borich cited in Campbell et al 2012 ). More factors should be considered. (iii)  Experience Richard has few years of teaching year 2 and 3 but lack of experience on teaching year 5 and 6; Janice has the most experience among 3 of them and she has 5 years experience on Year 5. Comparing to others, Ivar has the least experience in teaching. Teaching experience is a valuable access however there is no direct relationship between experience and student achievement and teaching experience is only a predictor of student outcomes occasionally (Anderson and Doresett cited in Campbell et al 2012). More factors should be concern. (iv) Self –efficacy ‘A belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainment ‘is called self efficacy (Bandura cited in Campbell et al 2012). Richard and Ivar are very confident about teaching year 5 while Janice is less confident about her skills. It is suggested that students that taught by higher self –efficacy perform better on standardized test and teachers with low self-efficacy have lower expectation of students (Moore and Esselman cited in Campbell et al 2012) . To improve the grade of NAPLAN, advancement of languages and maths are necessary and a teacher with higher self-efficacy is critical as there is positive relationship between self efficacy and the performance of languages and maths of the students (Anderson et al cited in Campbell et al 2012). From the perspective of goal setting theory, an individual with high self efficacy is more willing to set and accept a harder goal while commit to the goals with eff ort (Locke 1996). Richard and Ivar are the better choice. After accessing the above criteria, Richard and Ivar are the better choice since both of them are highly educated and with high self efficacy but Richard is the best choice. Ivar is not specialist in education which shows concern of insufficient knowledge of educational practices while Richard has a better educational knowledge. Refers to Darling-Hammond cited in Campbell et al (2012) , the strongest forecaster of relative achievement compared to others is teacher’s certification therefore Richard will be a better choice based on the element of knowledge. Methods to reward goal achievement The goal cannot be reached by one party’s effort therefore Richard and students should be rewarded. Financial rewards and non-financial rewards are suggested and James should integrate them as a complete reward process in order to work more effectively (Armstrong and Murlis 2007). (i) Financial rewards Merit pay program can be used once Richard reaches the goal. Merit pay is a system that increases the base salary of the employee who achieves the objectives of the business (Snell and Bohlander 2012). James should raise Richard‘s salary with a range of 7 to 9% in order to be motivate (Snell and Bohlander 2012). Financial rewards have no significant in students’ achievement thus financial reward is more appropriate for teachers (Robin 2012). From individual aspect, the increased salary allows Richard to satisfy various needs, such as; help his school fee for his master degree. Richard is competitive, while the financial reward is a tangible form of achievement recognition that satisfies his needs of ego and self- actualization (Armstrong and Murlis 2007). For school, the financial rewards enhance motivation, Richard is more willing to stay in the school and this benefits the school from retaining talents to teach Year 5 students (Armstrong and Murlis 2007). (ii) Non fina ncial rewards Non financial rewards are more effective in motivating (Armstrong and Murlis 2007). James can reward Richard by providing recognition, such as verbally reward with positive feedback, promotion and training and development. James can reward the students by praising the classes and providing extra-circular activities for students to relax and learn. Richard has his own mind in career progression, rewards such as promotion, allows him to reach his individual goal (to have a better career).If Richard is rewarded with training, more knowledge will be received and allow him to have a well preparation for his master degree. Non financial rewards shows recognition which reinforce Richard’s self esteem and self actualization. For the school, non financial rewards bring lasting motivation which maintains Richard’s motivation to work in the school and dedicate more effort for his teaching of Year 5 students. (Armstrong and Murlis 2007) The rewards  motivate the Year 5 students t o study hard in order to get a better result in NAPLAN. James’s role According to managerial competency framework by Quinn, several roles from the framework are selected for James in the application of this case. James is a director, he has to develop a vision and set a clear goal and objectives for his teachers moreover he has to organize and design the whole plan to achieve the goal (Quinn et al 2003). Secondly, James is a mentor, he has to communicate effectively and share his knowledge of NAPLAN with Richard to develop his ability in teaching Year 5 students (Quinn et al 2003). James has to think creatively as he may have to draft new teaching strategies with Richard therefore he has to live and mange the change and his role in this process is innovator (Quinn et al 2003). James is also a co-coordinator, new ideas may suggested by Richard and James has to manage the projects and across the functions to ensure the Richard’s works can run smoothly (Quinn et al 2003).Finally, James is a monitor, performances of students should be reviewed regu larly to keep the process on track while teaching styles should be monitored, for example, James can be a guest teacher in Richard’s class to see how the class runs and provides feedback to Richard (Quinn et al 2003, Mitchell, Ortiz, and Mitchell 1987). Feedback drives performance and motivation therefore feedback should be given frequently, James is able to check the progress of the goal while Richard is able to improve his limitations or retain his advantages (Latham 2007). Unintended consequences  Harder goals drive performance therefore James may set a harder goal for Richard and his year 5 students to achieve (Latham 2007). A harder goal is associated higher risk which may lead to worse performance compare to lower goals, for instance, a harsher teaching style is adopted by Richard but students may face extra pressure and lost their motivation in learning (Latham 2007). Secondly, goal conflicts may happen, such as, the school’s goal is vary from Richard’s individual goal which reduce the motivation and worsen the performance (Latham 2007). In order to reach the goal, James has to co-ordinate with other teachers with the class arrangement, this may lead to disagreement about the decision and conflicts between colleagues may result. With the new class arrangement, other classes need to adopt a new  teacher or teaching style; it influences the academic results and motivation. Others teachers also need to cope with the new goal and assi st Richard and principal in some points yet they do not get any reward, it leads to the problem of unfairness and inequality. Conclusion To conclude, goal and task are strongly linked and dimension of goal is divided into content and intensity. A successful goal should be set according to S.M.A.R.T. After evaluation, Richard is chosen as the teacher. James could motive Richard and students by financial and non financial rewards. Within the process, James has multiple roles as mention before to ensure the goal is achieved. However, unexpected results may happen therefore James should consider more theories application solve the problem and achieve synergy. Reference list Armstrong, M. and Murlis, H. 2007, Reward Management: A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice, 5th ed., Kogan Page Publishers, U.K. Bailey, K. 2006, Language Teacher Supervision: A case Based Approach, Cambridge University Press, U.K. Campbell, J., Kyriakides, L., Nuijis, D. and Robinson, W. 2012, Assessing Teacher Effectiveness: Different Models, Routledge, Canada. Latham, G. 2007, Work Motivation. History.Theory.Research and Practice, Thousand Oaks, U.K. Locke, E. 1996, ‘Motivation through conscious goal setting’, Applied and Preventative Psychology, vol.5, pp. 117-124. Locke, E. and Latham, G. 1990, A theory of Goal setting and Task Performance, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Mitchell, D., Ortiz, F. and Mitchell, T. 1987, Work Orientation and Job Performance: The Cultural Basis of Teaching Rewards and Incentives, Suny Press, U.S.A. Robin, G. 2012, Praise, Motivation, and the Child, Routledge, U.S.A. Rouillard,L. 2003, Goals and Goal Setting: Achieving Measured Ob jectives, 3rd ed., Cengage Learning, U.S.A. Snell, S. and Bohlander,G. 2012, Managing Human Resources, Cengage Learning, U.S.A. Stronge, J. and Hindman, J. 2006, The Teacher Quality Index: A Protocol for Teacher Selection, ASCD, U.S.A. Quinn, R.E., Faerman,S.R., Thompson,M.P. and McGrath,M. 2003, Becoming a master manager: A competency framework, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

A Reminder About Crowdfunding

A Reminder About Crowdfunding Most emails I receive from readers about finding funds, request sources of grants. Grants to pay them to write, travel, or research. Most of the time, these are first-time book creators, calling from the great sea of the unpublished. And each time I have to tell them that unless they have other skills, experience, or notoriety about the subject matter, nobody wants to issue a grant to a novice to write. Remember, the grant provider needs to sparkle from your success, and ride on your coattails. They dont just write checks for the fun of it. Then I suggest crowdfunding as an alternative. Why? 1) Crowdfunding teaches you how to promote yourself. 2) Crowdfunding teaches you how to build a platform. 3) Crowdfunding teaches you how to develop a following. 4) Crowdfunding teaches you how to budget. 5) Crowdfunding teaches you entrepreneurialship. Where can you find crowdfunding? Start here: 10 Crowdfunding Platforms for Writers    As a matter of fact, you can see a very simple crowdfunding campaign And take a look at a more complicated campaign at Kickstarter.com where Crystal Sully wants to publish The Untamed Beastiary: A Field Guide to Marvelous Monsters. She has 780 pledges with a week to go. She requested $7,535, and the pledges to date amount to $47,625. And there are every size, shape, and subject to learn from in visiting these crowdfunding sites. Look under publishing. See what makes for a successful campaign. Find fund projects to support. I adore perusing crowdfunding sites and aiding others. I might not give each one more than $10, but Ive aided a writers creative endeavor.   Its a great way to give back AND learn how to manage a campaign of your own.

Monday, October 21, 2019

New Baby and Experience of Birth Quotations

New Baby and Experience of Birth Quotations For a first-time mother, the experience of having a baby is indescribable. The new feeling of life taking from inside her, the physical and emotional changes, and the anticipation of bringing forth a new life is wonderful. A new baby brings untold joys to the life of a mother. These new baby quotes beautifully express the joys of motherhood. This collection of new baby quotes has famous people articulating their feelings on the arrival of a new baby. Whether or not you have a baby, you will find immense pleasure in reading these new baby quotes. New Baby Quotes Nancy ThayerWho is getting more pleasure from the rocking, baby or me?David LettermanCongratulations are in order for Woody Allen. He and Soon Yi have a brand new baby daughter. Its all part of Woodys plan to grow his own wives.AnonymousAdoption is when a child grew in its mommys heart instead of her tummy.Shannon Boff[After having twice been a surrogate mother] I think Im going into retirement. Any more babies coming from me are going to be keepers.AnonymousThe joy of having a baby today can only be expressed in two words: tax deduction.Irena ChalmersThere are three reasons for breast-feeding: the milk is always at the right temperature; it comes in attractive containers, and the cat cant get it.Jimmy Piersall[on how to diaper a baby] Spread the diaper in the position of the diamond with you at bat. Then fold second base down to home and set the baby on the pitchers mound. Put first base and third together, bring up home plate and pin the three together. Of course, in case of rain, you gotta call the game and start all over again. Marion JonesI loved having my baby inside of me, but I was very happy when he was finally here.Dave BarryThe old system of having a baby was much better than the new system, the old system being characterized by the fact that the man didnt have to watch.Kate HudsonI got so much advice; I just started tuning it out. If one more person told me what I had to do when the baby comes, I was going to shoot em.Sam BrownbackUnborn children can experience pain even more so than adults as the baby has more pain receptors per square inch than at any other time in its life.Eileen Elias FreemanWhen babies look beyond you and giggle, maybe theyre seeing angels.Terri GuillemetsIt was the tiniest thing I ever decided to put my whole life into.Lucinda FranksChristmas in Bethlehem. The ancient dream: a cold, clear night made brilliant by a glorious star, the smell of incense, shepherds and wise men falling to their knees in adoration of the sweet baby, the incarnation of perfect love.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

ACT Test Dates Study Plan for Summer Before Senior Year

5-Step SAT/ACT Test Dates Study Plan for Summer Before Senior Year SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Your senior year is coming up, and you’re ready to blow those standardized tests out of the water once and for all. It’s time to figure out the best study plan for you that still leaves time for summer jobs, shameful levels of ice cream consumption, and acquiring incomprehensible tan lines. Follow these five steps to make the most of your summer studying before your SAT or ACT test date! Step 1: Determine Your Goal The first step in creating a study plan is knowing how much you need to improve.You can calculate your target scores for both the SAT and ACT based on your college admission goals. Google your college of choice and â€Å"SAT scores† or â€Å"ACT scores† to find the score range of the middle 50 percent of admitted applicants - in other words, a 25th percentile score and a 75th percentile score. Aim for the 75th percentile score (a better score than 75 percent of admitted applicants) to give yourself the best chance of being admitted. Then, take a practice test to see where you stand score-wise, or,if you’ve already taken the SAT or ACT at least once (hopefully you have!), you can use that score to judge how much you need to improve.Here are some links to free practice tests for the SAT and ACT if you feel you’ve improved significantly since the last time you took the tests and need to get a new baseline score. Step 2: Figure Out How Many Hours You Need to Study Now that you know your baseline and target scores, you can use the difference between them to estimate the number of hours you’ll need to study to achieve your goals by the time of your SAT/ACT test date. Here’s an estimated breakdown of point improvement per number of study hours for the SAT: 0-30 SAT Composite Point Improvement: 10 hours30-70 Point Improvement: 20 hours70-130 Point Improvement: 40 hours130-200 Point Improvement: 80 hours200-330 Point Improvement: 150 hours+ And here’s the same infofor the ACT: 0-1 ACT Composite Point Improvement: 10 hours1-2 ACT Point Improvement: 20 hours2-4 ACT Point Improvement: 40 hours4-6 ACT Point Improvement: 80 hours6-9 ACT Point Improvement: 150 hours+ Remember, these are rough estimates, which means they’re not necessarily going to apply to everyone. That’s why the next step is about adjusting thenumber of summer-studying hours to meet your specific needs. Step 3: Factor in Your Study Habits and Learning Style You now have a rough idea of how many hours you’ll need to put in, but you might need to study for more or less time based on how you process information and how focused you are. Here are some factors that might lead you to add or subtract study hours from your plan. You’ll Need to Study for More Time If ... You get distracted easily - If you have trouble focusing, you probably aren't getting as much out of your study time. Make sure you study in a quiet place with your phone turned off. If you find you can't focus on studying for hours at a time, stagger your time throughout each week rather than studying in big chunks. You struggle with running out of time on the test - The more comfortable you are with the test questions and their structure, the less stressed you'll be about time. You're less likely to psych yourself out if you've studied enough to feel comfortable with the test material. You take a while to learn from your mistakes - On standardized tests it can be difficult to accumulate knowledge about your mistakes and apply it to future scenarios. If you have particular difficulty with identifying and understanding your mistakes, you may need more study time. You've already studied a lot without much score improvement - In this case, it might be time to change study tactics and commit to more hours. Reevaluate how you've been studying. If you're just taking a bunch of practice tests and not really investigating your incorrect answers, you probably won't see much of an improvement in your scores. You’ll Need to Study for Less Time If ... You are a super focused studier- If you really get in the zone when you study, you might not need to set aside as much time. You don’t have difficulty finishing the sections with time to spare- Since you're comfortable enough with the questions to get through them all, you've already conquered one of the most troublesome aspects of the test. You learn from your mistakes right away - If all it takes for you to learn the right way to answer a question is to answer it wrong once, you probably don't need as much study time as the average person. You are new to the test- This one’s unlikely if you’re coming up on senior year, but even if you just haven’t studied a lot up to this point, it will be easier for you to make improvements quickly. Remember that literal osmosis is not a viable studying technique. Step 4: Spread Out Your Estimated Hours Based on Summer Plans and Summer and Fall Test Dates Now for the actual plan - you know approximately how many hours you need to study, but how will you fit them into your schedule? If you’re planning to take the SAT or ACT on the first test dates in the fall, you have until October 5, 2019, for the SAT and September 8, 2019, for the ACT. If you want to take a test at the end of the summer, the SAT is now also offered at the end of August (August 24, 2019), while the ACT is offered in the summer on July 13, 2019(except in CA and NY). Note that the tests are held at roughly the same time every year, so these dates should still be good benchmarks if you’re reading this later. From the start of the summer you’re looking at aboutthree months of study time, with a little extra time once the school year starts up again.It's a good idea to spread out your hours out as much as possible week by week so you don't get overwhelmed. Here are a couple examples of plans for different point improvements: I Want to Improve by 30-70 Points on the SAT or 1-2 Points on the ACT You have an estimated study time of 20 hours, which is easily manageable over the course of three months.Choose one to two hours a week that you will set aside for studying.By the end of the summer, you will accumulate at least 20 hours of study time. If you think you need to study for more than 20 hours, two hours a week for the summer will give you about 30 hours plus whatever study time you can fit in during the fall before your last shot at the test. I Want to Improve by 130-200 Points on the SAT or 4-6 Points on the ACT For this level of improvement, the estimated study time is 80 hours, so you’ll have to be slightly more disciplined. Try setting aside an afternoon once a week that you will devote to studying.Five hours a week for the whole summer will get you close to 80 hours.After that, if you feel you need more preparation, you can do a little more studying during the fall before the test. I Want to Improve by 200-330 Points on the SAT or 6-9 Points on the ACT You’re going to have to put in quite a bit of effort to see the improvements you’re looking for no matter how good your studying habits are.Studying for 150 hours or more in the summer is a tall order, but it’s not impossible. In this case, you should schedule10 hours a week for studying.It might sound like a lot, but think about it: it’s the time equivalent of less than two days of school and you have the option of being outside or sitting in a comfy chair in a cafe as you do it. Whatever Your Goals, It’s Not Too Late to Get Your Scores up to Speed! If you think you'll need more study time, you can also take the tests later in the fall.The SAT offers November and December test dates, and the ACT offers October and December test dates.If you're considering these dates, check with the admissions offices of the colleges where you plan on applying to see how late they accept scores. I recommend signing up for the first available fall test dates to see where you stand after all your summer studying. If you don’t do as well as you hoped, you can then immediately sign up for the next date. I get it now! Thanks, disembodied hand! Step 5: Execute Your Study Plan, but Keep It Flexible OK, now it’s time to put your plan in motion!You’ve blocked out your study time, and you’re committed to following through.However, it’s important to remember to roll with the punches if conflicts arise (and they will!). Maybe you end up going on a family vacation, camping with your friends, or taking on a part-time job.Make sure you don’t let studying fall by the wayside just because you skip a day or a week.Be open to moving around your study schedule so that you can maintain your goals while also taking advantage of the summer in other ways. Also remember: if you think you should be studying more or if you don’t feel like you are getting anywhere with your current methods, it’s OK to change your plan.It can be critical to maintain flexibility in terms of study strategies if you want to see real improvement. Try to be honest with yourself about what you’re getting out of your time and whether you need to reevaluate your study habits and techniques. As long as you can maintain the right balance of flexibility and commitment, you’ll have a fun and productive summer! What's Next? Still trying to decide when to take the SAT or ACT? Learn which senior year SAT/ACT test dates are best for you.Also take a look at upcoming test dates for SAT subject tests if you still need to take those! If you've already taken the SAT, find out how many times you should take it in totalbefore you apply to college. Finally, if you're aiming for a really high score, or just want to know how you can make the biggest improvements, check out our guides to getting a perfect score on the SAT or ACT. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Exam Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Exam - Case Study Example From this belief, they are able to cope with their social identity as perceived by other people. On the other hand, people with discreditable stigma assume that they stigma is not known and cannot be directly identified (Shana & Collete 63). They are able to protect their stigma from their normal social identity. This allows them to decrease their stigma. The self-fulfilling prophecy enable people with different behavior create their preferred societal perception. Enacting the prophecy and responding to societal influence enables people with different behavior to increase a normal society perception on them (Leflot, Onghena & Colpin 390) People with physical disabilities are able to see that they are different and not normal as compared to other people. Cox et.al is of the assumption that this perception develops a negative self-concept (430). The individual view themselves as less effective and social fit. Learning process as directly linked with the abilities of a person to child to fit in a specific environment. For instance, a child with autism may be placed in a different classroom environment from normal children (Keller 98). In addition, a person from a poor background may not be enrolled in educational institutions that provide top quality learning experiences. A self-advocacy framework may improve the abilities of people with disabilities to become significant members of the society. Through the framework, people with disabilities should be provided with self-knowledge abilities, knowledge of rights, communication and leadership skills (Marsh & Martin 60). This skills increase the effectiveness of people with disabilities to take part in professional practices. Fatness should not be perceived as a disability. In an argument by Keller being overweight cannot be perceived as a disability since it may be caused by a lifestyle that can be avoided (56). In addition, most cases of disabilities like autism require special medical attention and

Friday, October 18, 2019

Creating Balanced Budget Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Creating Balanced Budget - Assignment Example If the taxes are increased, then there will be inflated figures and the imbalance will continue being experienced. One of the ways of implementing this step is that all federal expenditure saves for the payments on the debts need to be frozen to lower levels such as less than 10% of the preceding year (Smith & Hou, 2013). Therefore, reduction of the expenditure as described is deemed the best method of reducing the negative balances in the budget. Areas Requiring Increase and DecreaseFrom an analytical perspective, the greatest problem in the budget starts at the point where expenditures are mentioned. In this case, all the values, both revised and actual are negative (Heun, 2014). That means that this is the section that needs to be seriously trimmed. Strict balanced budget requirements need to be instituted so that excess spending is restrained as much as possible. Consider the total expenditure for the year 2013 operating at -3803.30. It means much of the expenditure was borrowed and this creates more debt year after year which is not good for the future of the country and the citizens. This is realised through the government having a specified rate of expenditure for every department listed in the budget. If 10% cut is imposed on all sections, then it means that all the expenses will be cut by the same rate (Smith & Hou, 2013). The other section that needs to be looked at is the revenues section. In this case, it is worth noting that the entire revenue section depends on taxes and duties.

Edouard Lalo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Edouard Lalo - Essay Example During the 1850s, Lalo played an important role in the revival of the Chamber music in France and composed two piano trios which showed his mastery over that form. In 1848, he co-founded the Arminguad Quartet where he performed as a violist and second violinist. Lalo married Julie Berner in 1865, who later became a performer for his compositions. Lalo had to face disappointments, a lot of times during his career. In 1866, Lalo began writing ‘Fiesque’, an opera which was supposed to be performed on the stage but the Paris Opera went against producing his work. Lalo’s career reached its apex when the ‘Societe Nationale de Musique’ was founded in 1871 with the aim of promoting contemporary composers. This motivated Lalo to compose for the orchestra, and he produced impressive compositions during this period which included the famous ‘Symphonie espagnole’, the ‘Cello Concerto’ and ‘Fantaisie norvegienne’. Laloâ€℠¢s most complex yet most celebrated work was Le Roi d'Ys, an opera that was performed in the year 1888 which earned him great reputation as a composer. Lalo left several works incomplete when he died in Paris at the age of sixty three (Edouard Lalo). Works Cited â€Å"Edouard Lalo." Classical Acrhives. 26 04 2011 .

How to Define Poverty Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

How to Define Poverty - Literature review Example Consequently, and as Keen (1992) contends, given that development, theory embraces poverty alleviation strategies, one may assume that development policies and programmes are inherently focused upon poverty reduction/elimination. While the above assertion is valid and development policies, as does development theory, embrace poverty alleviation strategies, the fact remains that they are, more often than not, characterized by failure. The failure of development policies to successfully eradicate, or reduce poverty, is an immediate outcome of inaccurate definitions of poverty, a vague understanding of its causal factors, and a tendency to adopt prescribed development policies, as opposed to ones which have been specifically designed to address the type, cause and consequence of poverty in a specific society/nation. Through an analysis of the meaning of poverty, it variant causes and consequences, and the extent to which type and cause need inform poverty alleviation and development strategies if they are to successfully accomplish the objectives of development and poverty alleviation, the stated hypothesis will be investigated. Poverty is popularly understood as e... Until recently, the World Bank interpreted poverty in a similar manner, defining it as the "deprivation of income" (Mosley and Booth, 2003, p. 5). Realizing, however, that this definition was erroneous insofar as it imposed unjustifiable limitations on the theoretical conceptualizations of the referenced phenomenon, leading to the evolution of limited and delimiting development and poverty eradication policies, the World Bank undertook the revision of the mentioned definition. Rather than define poverty in economic terms alone, the World Bank adopted a more expansive definition of poverty as the "pronounced deprivation of well-being" (Mosley and Booth, 2003, p. 5). This definition does overcome some f the conceptual constraints imposed upon the phenomenon by the earlier definition but, as Sen (1976; 1984; 1985; 1999) has repeatedly argued, poverty is a fluid concept, most accurately defined in terms of its causal factors. Certainly, it is deprivation but it is countless forms of depr ivation, be it social, economic, political or geographic. It is not incorrect to define it as "deprivation," but it is hardly correct to leave it at that. In other words, and as Sen (1984; 1985) maintains, poverty is the absence of choice, be it on the political, economic or social levels. Â  

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Team Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Team - Essay Example Social groups of relative similarities functioned and develop them own system of values and accordance making them united in their own concept and apart from the other social groups. Thus with this concept, cultural diversity has predominantly existed as how society themselves strive and develop to the point of their current state. However, this innate and basically natural concept in the society has been always a massive hindrance for the establishment of social unity and uniformity especially on the principal level of a team. Since the team-building concept’s main agenda is the establishment of a uniting factor and bond among its members, their own personal and cultural diversity has always been a challenge for the said aim. Common problems and challenges such as uniqueness in the dominant language, dissimilarities with social norms and acceptable principles, differences concerning perception and opinions, and others often become a problem in the team-building aspect. In general, diversity produces stratification and division thus unification is being hindered. Indeed, cultural diversity in the aspect of team building is one of its main weaknesses. However, cultural diversity in a certain team can also serves as its potential strength producing advantages apart from its common disadvantages. Having a culturally diversified group is also beneficial because it can basically cover much more grounds than groups of only single culture. This concept is true because having a multicultural society in a single group will produce more and significantly different opinions and ideas and with the merging of these different ideas, a single group can produce a statement or an idea that is generally valid since it actually addresses point of views from each culture. It is like having a representative from each culture joining together to create a concept that will unify their principles and eliminate their differences. In

Business Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 12500 words

Business Plan - Essay Example The partners have agreed that they should be co-equal partners in this venture, each providing one-third of the equity financing. Based on their experiences, skills and training, Brandon Beaver will take on the financial control and risk management, Kevin Gillin will oversee the organizational management as well as the manufacturing and operations aspect, because of his background in leadership and engineering. Brian Giuliano is a marketing professional in the field of medical devices, therefore his expertise is relevant in the market analysis and the sales and marketing activities for the venture. The line of products that the team proposes to manufacture include devices and technologies that do either one, two, or all of three things: (1) they detect the presence of certain substances, such as alcohol or drugs, which may be detectable in the breath, sweat, or subcutaneous layers of the skin; (2) to sense the physical or mental state of the driver with regard to fatigue, age, or disability by which a driver’s skill or attention may be compromised; and (3) on the basis of these findings, if the detected substance or condition has reached a critical level, to disable the car’s ignition or provide a signal or alarm to the driver, particularly in the case of drowsiness, or a similar signal to a remote location, such as to the parents of the youthful driver, with information as to the location of the vehicle if supplemented with GPS capability. Cannabis, more commonly known as marijuana, has been legalized for medical use in at least three countries (Israel, the Czech Republic, and Canada), and in several states in the United States although US Federal law bans the possession and use of the substance. Its use has been decriminalized in several countries and possession is legal in the Netherlands. Commencing 2013, recreational use of marijuana is legal in the two US states, namely Washington and Colorado. As a result of the increasingly

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Team Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Team - Essay Example Social groups of relative similarities functioned and develop them own system of values and accordance making them united in their own concept and apart from the other social groups. Thus with this concept, cultural diversity has predominantly existed as how society themselves strive and develop to the point of their current state. However, this innate and basically natural concept in the society has been always a massive hindrance for the establishment of social unity and uniformity especially on the principal level of a team. Since the team-building concept’s main agenda is the establishment of a uniting factor and bond among its members, their own personal and cultural diversity has always been a challenge for the said aim. Common problems and challenges such as uniqueness in the dominant language, dissimilarities with social norms and acceptable principles, differences concerning perception and opinions, and others often become a problem in the team-building aspect. In general, diversity produces stratification and division thus unification is being hindered. Indeed, cultural diversity in the aspect of team building is one of its main weaknesses. However, cultural diversity in a certain team can also serves as its potential strength producing advantages apart from its common disadvantages. Having a culturally diversified group is also beneficial because it can basically cover much more grounds than groups of only single culture. This concept is true because having a multicultural society in a single group will produce more and significantly different opinions and ideas and with the merging of these different ideas, a single group can produce a statement or an idea that is generally valid since it actually addresses point of views from each culture. It is like having a representative from each culture joining together to create a concept that will unify their principles and eliminate their differences. In

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Criminal Law Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Criminal Law - Assignment Example The guilty act/omission of the defendant must be the factual and legal cause of the death. To establish factual causation, the court in White1 established the ‘but for’ test: but for the defendant’s act, would the victim have suffered harm? If the answer is negative, factual causation is established. Legal causation requires that the death be attributable to a culpable act. However, the culpable act does not have to be the only cause. In Benge2, it was held that it is sufficient if it was more than minimal. However, some contributing acts may excuse the defendant from liability. If subsequent acts occur to break the chain of causation, the accused is not liable in law. Nevertheless, regardless of such intervening acts, where the acts of the accused remain the substantial and operative factors of the death, the defendant is not excused from culpability. This was established in the case of Smith3. Actus reus must be accompanied by mens rea. For the crime of murder, it must be proved that the accused had ‘malice aforethought’.4 That is, the accused had the intention to cause the unlawful death. Section 18 of the Offences Against the Person 1861 requires that the accused wounded or caused grievous bodily harm with intent to do some grievous bodily harm. In Mohan,5 the court held that foresight of death or injury was not tantamount to an intention. The test to establish presence of intention was laid by the house of the Lords in Nedrick.6 The court stated that the defendant must recognize that death or serious injury is virtually certain to result from his conduct. Additionally, the House of Lords decision in Woollin7 concluded that the jury could only infer intention when satisfied that death was virtually certain from the defendant’s conduct, and that the defendant appreciated this fact. Gerald will be charged with the crime of murder of Victoria. But for his conduct to hide Victoria in a secret air-tight compartment, she would not have died. His act

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Practice of Leadership and Management as a Nurse

The Practice of Leadership and Management as a Nurse Management is an economic resource to meet objective. It is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulations of the operations of an enterprise in fulfillment of the given purpose. Leadership on the other hand is the process of influencing individuals or groups towards achievement of a goal in a given situation. The purpose of this paper is mainly to synthesize differing leadership and management concepts and to apply principles of leadership and management, team building concepts, and organizational theory to nursing clinical practice. This is to ensure quality improvement, ensuring that the financial data is up to date, to ensure minimal risks occur at the health centers and avoid recurrent clinical problems. It is therefore important as a nurse to apply leadership and management concepts to ensure that there is motivation for the good operation under the hospitals. Nursing management is the performance of the leadership functions whilst ensuring the leadership powers are kept in place. This leadership powers include: coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, reference, information and should make sure they are all wrapped and exercised. Nursing management includes all the main functions of management namely: Planning; this includes the forecasting and the selection of objectives with the policies, programs and procedures for achieving them. Nurses should therefore be in a position to plan with clear focus Organizing; this is concerned with decision of work and the allocation of duties, authority and responsibility. This will enable nurses to avoid reoccurring of previous errors. Directing/leading; it involves the guiding and supervising subordinates. The nurses must make sure the subordinates are oriented into the understanding why, guided towards improved performance and motivated to work effectively towards the hospitals goals Controlling; it is the process involved in setting up of standards, the regular comparison of physical events with standards and then taking up the corrective actions. The nursing management is therefore applying this functions and leadership roles especially at the nursing unit. They also have other primary responsibilities of staffing, motivating, communicating, commanding and budgeting among others. Importance of Management and Leadership to Nurse Managers Firstly, it ensure quality improvement by incorporating unity of direction, unity of command, stability of staff which will lead to a sense of belonging and ensures patients are well taken care of. Also it helps by ensuring that the financial data is up to date by employing the principle of authority and responsibility which calls for accountability and prevents misuse of authority. In addition it minimizes risks at the health centers by making sure there are order and a scalar chain of command and conclusively, avoids recurrent clinical problems. Difference between Leaders and Managers leaders generally innovate and develop while managers administer and maintain Leaders focus on people inspiring trust and openness while managers focus on systems and structures and make staffs rely on control Leaders do the right things and keep an eye on the horizon while managers do things right and keep an eye on the bottom line Leaders originate things whereas managers imitate things Leaders change the status quo while managers accept the status quo Management Style and Leadership style The contingency approach or situational approach suggests that there is no one best way to manage and organize but rather, successful managerial decisions options depends upon the situations and circumstances in which such decisions are made. Autocratic leadership style is considered as a classical approach to leadership or dictatorship. It is one in which the managers retain as much decision making authority as possible. Bureaucratic leadership is where the managers manage by the book that is; everything must be done according to procedure or policy. Laissez fair is the one in which the leader provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authorities are given to employees and they must determine their goals, make decision and resolve problems on their own. Democratic leadership style encourages employees to perform part of their decisions. Democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affect their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibility. I would therefore apply the democratic leadership style since it will ensure that I consider the subordinates that units for the benefit of the health care and the society at large. II. Application of leadership and management of nursing practice Case Scenario A health care that envisages providing the best and competitive health care facilities must have staff example the charge nurse, sister nurse who are excellent in their chosen disciplines, have strong leadership capabilities, and are comfortable working in the environment. Top managers of the unit should therefore posses distinct characteristics of great leaders, thus being a boon to the health unit and society especially as patients. Also strategic management is believed to spread the realization of organizational objectives. The intensity of global competitiveness in best service requires managers to adopt strategic management and be well versed with the characteristics associated with strategic decisions. Problem Being the nurse in charge of advanced health care institute, there has been problems as a result of poor management and leadership skills. Firstly the employees turnover is high that is the numbers of employees under various department employed per year is almost 100%.Secondly the health care members usually receive orders from various supervisors bringing forth a lot of confusion, the division of labor is poorly done such that some patients may be attended by more than one nurse and the others may fail to be attended. The problems that were previously done are reoccurred therefore making the number of patients to get services to other health care unit .In addition there are a lot of complains from other staff that their remuneration is not fair enough and that the level of job satisfaction is quite low. Plan action Behavioral approach to management; this is based on the perception that those involved in the organization are the predetermining of organizational and managerial effectiveness. It is concerned with understanding of the individual workers with emphasis on motivation, needs, interpersonal relationships and group dynamics. For instance, Douglas Mc Greggor-Theory X and Theory Y .Douglas MC Greggor believed that employees are lazy beings hence managers should use carrot and stick in motivating employees in theory X assumption. In theory Y assumptions Douglar MC Greggor believed that work is like a play and if a play is not interesting the employees will not be interested in the play. With this kind of a system and applying Henri Fayols principles of management that are relevant to principles management, I will ensure that there is fair remuneration, that also there is stability of staff, the principle of unity of command will also be useful by ensuring that members receive orders from on ly one supervisor. The most appropriate leadership style to succumb the problem is democratic leadership style which requires a leader to be a couch that has the final say but gathers information from the staffs before making a decision Steps in resolving this problem Problem recognition Problem definition Planning and design Solve the problem Implement the problem Strategies of leading and managing people Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual intensity, directions and persistence of efforts towards attaining a goal. It is the reasons why employees would want to work hard and work effectively for the organization. To motivate those involved towards a solution requires the elements of motivation which are; ability, level of skills, knowledge about how to complete the task, attitude, fillings and beliefs. By applying the motivation that is content theory and process theory, managers will be able to increase their motivation capacity. To gain effective support, the managers should ensure that they guide and supervise the subordinates accordingly and by way of example. The transfer of information between different people in a business should have a unit of direction to avoid conflict and confusion in authority. Change Theory Change is making things different or doing things in different ways. In most organization, change activities are activated. The modern approach to changes requires organization to be proactive to changes. In nursing management, for instance there are stimulants to changes. The emergence of newly created or reregulations of existing laws, increased in the number of accidents and errors, high level of labour turnover, changes in the legal system governing labour and other general areas. The change process includes; Initial problem identification where the initial problem is identified Obtaining data relating to the problem through different methods of data collection Problem diagnosis to understand the roots of the problem Action planning; this involves strategically having plans for solving the problem Implementation which involves application of the problem solving techniques to the problem Assessment of the consequences and learning from the process and giving feedback to other interconnected individuals and steps Organizational Environment Management environment refers to forces influencing organizational activity and management policies from within and outside the organization. The internal environment refers to the internal resources, activities and events of the organizational members. The stakeholders depending if it is a profitable or non profitable organization have a direct and specific impact upon organizational operation, the general environment especially the patients affect the organization. My strategy to solve the problem will have a social, cultural, economic, political impact on the agency. III. Evaluation Today the notion of total quality management means that the total organization is committed to quality. Total quality management means a total effort towards meeting customer needs and ensures selection by planning for quality. This can be easily evaluated by the outcomes of the staff members in accordance to the expected results. My plan would have work if the results are as per my plans and all the other problems are resolved. This is by ensuring there are no recurrent clinical problems and the clinic operates efficiently. Barriers Staff resistance to change is as a result of selective perception, fear of unknown, organizational culture and custom, anticipated inconveniences and probably economic factors. In addition the cost of analyses and making these changes is high and the organization may consider the cost outweighing the benefits. Also, the time required to solve the problems, making changes and coming up with a new plan may be too much and the organization may decide to ignore the problems. Furthermore there may be circumstances where the project will fail land this may lead to abandoning the project that was to incorporate change. In addition there can be changing priority and another plan has to be developed. IV. Summary In summary a leader should employ aspects of a good and effective leader. By applying the different leadership style that is autocratic, bureaucratic, and democratic and laissez fair, a leader should ensure that he is competent enough. Management is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulations of the operations of the enterprise, in fulfillment of the given purpose. Also the manager should ensure that he applies the principle of management especially scientific management and art management. There is still a sense of art in all management and in intuition is a very useful guide. Nobody will say that book learning will make successful manager. The importance fear of human relations with its psychological contacts is often a matter of personality more than procedure .Nursing management will thus involve incorporating all the principles and functions of management in order to ensure effective work is done and incorporating leadershi p style to motivate and cooperate with other staffs. Conclusion

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Comparison: the Jade Peony, horses Of The Night, Masque Of The Red :: essays research papers

Comparison: "The Jade Peony", "Horses of the Night", Masque of the Red Death" I noticed that i enjoyed most of the storys not only for the obvious reasons such as good charactors, mood, and imagery but also because of writing style and fluency. I noticed some storys I enjoyed reading even thought nothing in it really interested me too much, while other storys that were about topics I usally enjoy reading about I had to put down because I would end up going over every sentence two or three times each. So on that note I belive the most important part of writing is making it fluent and easy to read. The three storys I will compare and contrast are: "The Jade Peony", "Horses of the Night", and "The Masque of the Red Death." I intend to fine wether or not the author of these storys was sucessful in making it readable in the sence of comprehanceability and fluency. The first story I will be discussing is called "The Jade Peony" by Wayson Choy. I did not enjoy what this story was about nor did I enjoy reading it. Luckly it was short, If It wasnt I doubt i would have made it throught the whole thing. The main problem with this story was the inconsistance of the sentences, some sentences were too long while others were very short. The only way to truly fix this story would be to re-write it. The second story I chose to write about is called "Horses of the Night" by Margaret Laurence. I did enjoy reading this short story dipite the fact it seem to jump around alot; it would talk about somthing fairly in-depth then just suddenly jump to a different subject or time-era of the story. The author seem to show very good writing ability however so I think perhaps she did this on purpose either just for somthing different or maybe to give you a break from what she was currently writing about. And finally the third and personal favourite story i chose to include in this paper is called "The Masqe of the Red Death." This story is nice and easy to read even though it uses fairly large words and complex sentences. This story just happens to be writen by one of my favourite writers as well: Edgar Allen Poe. I enjoyed this story mainly because like i said it was easy to read

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Hamlet - Is there Indecision? Essay -- GCSE English Literature Coursew

     Ã‚  Ã‚   The Bard of Avon has in the character of Hamlet (in the tragedy of that name) a hero who has been accused of hesitation and indecisiveness. Are such accusations appropriate? L.C. Knights in â€Å"An Approach to Hamlet† explains the modern appeal of the tragedy in terms of the indecisiveness of its hero: Hamlet is a man who in the face of life and of death can make no affirmation, and it may well be that this irresolution – which goes far deeper than irresolution about the performance of a specific act – this fundamental doubt, explains the great appeal of the play in modern times. The point has been made by D.G. James in The Dream of Learning. Shakespeare’s play, he says, â€Å"is an image of modernity, of the soul without clear belief losing its way, and bringing itself and others to great distress and finally to disaster†; it is â€Å"a tragedy not of excessive thought but of defeated thought,† and Hamlet himself is â€Å"a man caught in ethical and metaphysical uncertainties.† Now I am sure that Mr. James is right in emphasizing the element of scepticism in Hamlet’s makeup – the weighing of alternative possibilities in such a way as to make choice between them virtually impossible [. . .] . (64)    Is there a connection between verbal hesitation and hesitation in action and decisions? Lawrence Danson in the essay â€Å"Tragic Alphabet† discusses the hesitation in action by the hero as related to his hesitation in speech:    To speak or act in a world where all speech and action are equivocal seeming is, for Hamlet, both perilous and demeaning, a kind of whoring. The whole vexed question of Hamlet’s delay ought, I believe, to be considered in light of this dilemma. To a man alienated from his society’s most basic symboli... ...ions: Hamlet. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Rpt. from Tragic Form in Shakespeare. N.p.: Princeton University Press, 1972.    Rose, Mark. â€Å"Reforming the Role.† Modern Critical Interpretations: Hamlet. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Rpt. from Homer to Brecht: The European Epic and Dramatic Traditions. Ed. Michael Seidel and Edward Mendelson. N.p.: Yale University Press, 1977.    Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html No line nos.    West, Rebecca. â€Å"A Court and World Infected by the Disease of Corruption.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Court and the Castle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957.         

Friday, October 11, 2019

Bullying and Memorable Punch Line

What is a good structure, outline or good guidelines to writing an Informative speech? * Your Opener – the opening, ice-breaker or attention grabber * Introduction – Tell them what the speech is about and what your main points will be * Knowledge – Establish credibility by demonstrating expertise and knowledge of the subject – conveying information, presenting ideas, facts and statistics to adequately inform the audience about the subject * Confirmation – Confirm and repeat the key points * Conclusion – Try to end with a memorable punch line or positive statement By a show of hands, who in here has been bullied?Who in here has been a bully? Did you know that throughout the past years, bullying has become so severe that for every one two three four five six seven eight nine; a student has just dropped out. All on account of bullying or things otherwise. Many things can define bullying. Bullying is another word for harassing. Whether it’ s punching, kicking, or making fun of someone, it all concludes to two forms: physical and mental bullying. Physical bullying involves body contact whereas mental bullying involves messing with the brain.Examples of physical bullying are, pushing, kicking, spitting, punching, hitting, or any other physical contact that the person finds to be abrasive. Examples of mental bullying are being made fun of, making someone feel low of their selves, teasing, or anything that makes the person feel emotionally bad by someone else. Another form of bullying is cyber bullying. It is where students are being bullied online. Things usually said are threatening or sometimes worst. When you really think about it there are three differences of bullying.Some can just be a rough play – usually by friends and no intention to harm. Some can be real fighting – usually not by friends. Another behavior can be actual bullying, which usually are not friends and is intentional. Statistics show th at over one-fourth of students in all grades have reported being bullied because of their religion, race, sexual orientation, gender, disabilities, or simply just being different. Sometimes it can lead to horrible violence in which the bully is jailed. About 60 percent of students have been arrested or jailed for bullying.Bullying has lead to over 75 percent of shootings that starts in schools. About 33 percent of youth has been bullied over the internet but are more likely to not mention anything about it. Bullying has such affects on teens, that it can lead them to feeling five times more likely to be depressed or suicidal. About a good ten percent of teens have attempted suicide. In Wisconsin, it is a law to not discriminate or bully people based on race, gender, religion, ancestry, pregnancy, parental status, sexual orientation, or physical, emotional, or mental disabilities.There is no law on cyber bullying. In recent news, six students have committed suicide because of bullyin g and only ranging from the ages 11-18. These six students were constantly bullied whether it was online, on the phone, in school or wherever else. Some of these students jumped a bridge, hung their selves, shot their selves, or did other things. All for being gay and invading privacy. All for being different. Ways you can stop bullying is to tell a wise person, ask for help, and definitely stand up for yourself.Bullying is not worth killing yourself over for because in the long-run, these bullies will not be in your future. Most of these kids you won’t even see after school. You have a few years of these people bullying you and the rest of your life to go – the rest of your life to live. What I don’t get frankly is why do you have the courage to commit suicide but not have the courage to stand up to your bullies. Suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary problem. You allow people to treat you the way that do and what you can do is to stand up for yourself.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Lehigh’s 1993 product mix Essay

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The objective of this memo is to recommend you a product mix for Lehigh in the year of 1993 based on profit calculations and other business considerations. Recommendation: 1993 product mix should include only High Speed Based on an approach resultant from the combination of ABC plus Theory of Constraints (TOC), I recommend that the company include only the High Speed (machine coil) in its mix. The table bellow contains the unitary cost for Standard and ABC and the throughput per unit of the constrained resource ($/min), calculated diving the unitary ABC cost ($/lb) by the machine time for the rolling process (lb/min): The following paragraphs present a deeper analysis to allow comprehension of the logical steps that led to this recommendation. Rationale: ABC and TOC combined approach The major idea behind combining ABC and TOC approaches is to come up with a fourth method of calculating profits that overcomes the shortcomings of the other three methods (Standard, ABC and TOC). Based on the ABC model (see description of this model in the next section of this report: Alternatives Rejected), I calculated the unitary operating profit per product. This operating profit eliminates the major issue concerning the Standard Costing system: to average uneven resource consumption across products. The next step was to incorporate the concept of time as a factor used in Lehigh’s decision-making. First, by obtaining information from the operations staff, I defined the CRM as the constraint of the plant. Then, I calculated the  throughput per unit of the constrained process (Rolling – CRM) by diving the unitary ABC cost ($/lb) by the machine time for the rolling process (lb/min). Exhibit 1 presents the results for these calculations. According to this approach, alloys, roller wires and chipper knives present losses, while only high speeds and round bars showed profits: respectively $4.84 and $0.08 per minute of rolling machine (CRM) used. However, considering this small profit per minute for round bars and that Die Steel market is broad and requires that its participants offer a full product line to maintain share (this means that Chipper Knives should also be produced), I recommend that Die Steel products be removed from product mix. Consequently, high speeds are the only products that I recommend be kept in Lehigh’s product mix in 1993. It is important to mention that with demand recovering in 1993 and Lehigh’s superior product performance, it may be possible that the company command a price premium for its alloys high enough to turn it profitable in this method and, consequently, to include it in its product mix. Alternatives rejected: Standard, ABC costing and TOC approach Analyzing the scenario, Lehigh had 3 other possibilities for calculating its profit per product: Standard costing The product weight was considered the primary driver of resource consumption, so the indirect manufacturing and administrative costs were allocated to products based on pounds produced. As a result, this approach considers that each of the five products uses manufacturing and administrative overhead equally (their unitary costs are all $0.64 per pound). Moreover, direct manufacturing costs were allocated based on machine hours and materials and direct labor were allocated based on the bill of materials and routings. The calculations for this first alternative are presented in exhibit 2. According to this approach, all products but alloys present operating losses. However, standard costing is averaging the diverse resource use by products and that one it points as the most profitable (alloys) is already promoted by marketing and sales teams, but Lehigh is not showing profits during this period. Therefore, this alternative is not recommended. ABC costing In this second approach, I considered Utilities, Maintenance and Depreciation as direct manufacturing costs and allocated them based on machine hours. Number of skus was considered driver for Technical Support. The product weight was considered driver of resource consumption only for General & Administrative costs. Moreover, materials and direct labor were allocated based on the bill of materials and routings (exactly the way they were allocated in Standard Costing system). Finally, Material Handling & Setup, Order Processing and Production Planning were driven to products using number of orders. Consequently, ABC solves the major issue regarding the Standard Costing system: the assumption that all overhead costs can be included into one cost pool. All the drivers are summarized in exhibit 3. Exhibits 4 and 5 present respectively the ABC drivers and allocation rates. The calculations for this alternative are presented in exhibit 6. According to this approach, alloys, roller wires and chipper knives present operating losses, while only high speeds and round bars showed operating profits: $0.15 and $0.01 per pound. However, ABC does not take into consideration how smoothly material flowed through the plant and product profitability should reflect this kind of difference in resource consumption. This is the reason why this alternative was not selected. TOC approach In this third approach, it was proposed a simple operational measure to orientate the decision-making process within the company: Throughput. It was calculated as sales less material cost (â€Å"contribution margin†) per unit of the constrained resource. As already mentioned, the rolling process (CRM) is the bottleneck of the plant. TOC approach considers that the efficient management of the constrained resource is the key factor to increase profitability. The calculations for this alternative are presented in exhibit 7. According to this approach, high speeds and alloys were the products that showed higher â€Å"contribution margins†: $25.00 and $17.70 per minute of rolling machine (CRM) used. However, TOC approach only takes into consideration the material costs, leaving aside all the other relevant costs that could be allocated to each product according to ABC approach. In other words, TOC method does not reflect the real operating profits. Considering  this point, this alternative was discarded.