Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Definition Essay Sample on Chicago A Picture of the City

Definition Essay Sample on Chicago A Picture of the City The article by Sweeney and Gorner entitled Teen Parolee Charged with Killing Chicago Cop, Former Cha Officer, The Devil in the White City by Larson, and For the Thrill of It by Baatz Simon introduces a picture of the city of Chicago, and the criminal acts that are associated with it defining the characteristics of a personality in Chicago. The common point that the three articles share is crime in the context of taking human life and the city of Chicago as an environment that allows this act to define the characteristics of a personality. Larson talks about the history of crime in the city of Chicago by defining the surrounding factors that made it so easy for crime to be committed. The author talks about the thousand trains that come in and left the city bringing with them young women who were single and had never seen the city yet hoped to live in a big and tough city like Chicago calling it their home. Larson describes Chicago by writing about the streets angling past gambling houses, bordellos, and bars, where vice thrived together with the indulgence of the officials. Describing the old Chicago trait, Larson mention Hecht’s description of how he perceived the city; â€Å"It was good or pleasant, in a certain way, to be aware that outside their windows, the devil was still capering in flare brimstone.† The surrounding of the streets in Chicago according to Larson describes death to come as often as unexpected to an extent that one could step out of a curb and lose his life or be killed. The deaths were as rampant as two people per day were, but this could not be recognized since other causes apart from killing also contributed. The causes that included fires, horses bolting and dragging carriages into the crowds, streetcars falling from the drawbridges, and cholera, typhus, diphtheria, and influenza, appeared to cover up the murders that were also going on in the city. The author argues that the rate at which women and men killed each other or committed murder rose steadily in Chicago and police realized that they had no expertise or work force to manage these acts. The causes for the murders in Chicago are recorded to be prosaic and arise from argument, sexual jealousy, or robbery. Larson mentions the five –murder spree by Jack the ripper as the act that defied every explanation ever given for the murders. This signified that a lot was changing and everyone was looking at the boundary that existed between the wicked and the moral as being degraded. â€Å" it was so easy or very simple to disappear, so simple to deny knowledge, so easy in the din and smoke to mask that a dark thing had occurred†(Larson) The tribune reporter’s (Sweeney and Gorner) story on the other hand presents Chicago as a city of the gun. A teenage parolee who is determined to escape arrest because of a burglary charge shoots and kills a victim breaking in. Calumet who is the area commander described this act as â€Å"unbelievably, unfathomable, and so egregious.† Herring a parolee guns down Flisk Michael, a police officer, and Stephen Peters, a former Chicago Housing Authority officer without the victims having a chance of defending themselves. The reason given for committing such murders is that Herring was avoiding being caught for a burglary. Flisk is said to be the second officer to be shot in a week. Chicago police has had a violent 2010 most of which is the response to burglary. The killing of the police officers is becoming a characteristic of the Chicago personality as this report indicates that in less than 5 months in 2010, six officers have died in the line of duty. â€Å"A sixth office r (a sergeant) was killed in a car accident in the month of February, when responding to burglary.† (Sweeney and Gorner) Darrow is campaigning free love in a case where he represents Loeb Richard and Leopold Nathan who shot Franks Bobby and now faces a death penalty. The arguments that Clarence Darrow presents to the court regarding this case seems to support the Chicago personality of committing murders because of the simplest reasons. The first point that Darrow presents to the court is about the ages of the defendants. â€Å"There is no precedent that the court hangs two defendants who had not yet reached their majority.† (Baatz 373) This reason that Darrow gives is aimed at persuading the court to lessen it ruling on the murder case involving the two defendants. The second key reason that the lawyer presents to the court as the cause of the murder is the world war. Darrow says, â€Å"It was the Great War, more than any other single event or factor, had contributed to the murder of Bobby Franks.† (Baatz 376). The argument by Darrow that the killing of human beings had become so routine, casual, and so commonplace, that society now possessed a bloodlust, which inevitably found its way into Richard and Nathan, emphasizes Larson’s argument of Chicago being a human with the skin removed. The age of the Richard and Nathan take a center stage in Darrow’s defense and the lawyer argues that if the judge can hung an 18 year old boy then some other judge will hang the boy at 14, 16, or 17 whereas Herring is a teen and also manages to shoot two officers. The point of appeasing the mob and an act of revenge that Darrow mention (377) if the judge rules that Richard and Nathan be hanged appears to describe the murders in Chicago as right so long as the court will consider the minor as emotionally incapacitated. The murder of the officers by Herring is committed by a minor similar to the one by Nathan and Richard. The common point in both of these cases is that a gun is used by the defendants to commit the murder. It is true that times have changed and the reasons why murder was committed in the black city of Chicago are no longer the same ones for today. The accidents that claim the lives of the officers while responding to the crimes involving gun shooting or burglary are all killings. The argument by Darrow that hanging Richard and Nathan will not bring Franks Bobby’s life back, or deter crime is opposed by Sweeney and Gorner report stating that the shooter (Herring) is arrested by the police in a swift response, and charges are announced after the arrest. Larson’s article gives a picture of what Chicago has became and the murders that are still going on both in Darrow’s case and Herrings shooting portray the gun as a personality characteristic in Chicago.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Missouri ST - Admissions Information

Missouri ST - Admissions Information Missouri University of Science and Technology Admissions Overview: Missouri University of Science and Technology admits 79% of those who apply each year, making it largely accessible to those who apply. Students interested in applying to Missouri ST will need to take the SAT or ACT, and send in those scores to the school. Additional materials include an application form and high school transcripts. Will You Get In? Calculate Your Chances of Getting In  with this free tool from Cappex Admissions Data (2016): Missouri ST Acceptance Rate: 79%Test Scores 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 583  / 678SAT Math: 603  / 698SAT Writing:  - / -What these SAT numbers meanTop Missouri colleges SAT score comparisonACT Composite: 25  / 31ACT English: 24  / 31ACT Math: 25  / 30ACT Writing: - / -What these ACT numbers meanTop Missouri colleges ACT score comparison Missouri University of Science and Technology Description: Founded in 1870, the Missouri University of Science and Technology was the first technological institution west of the Mississippi. The school has gone through several name changes during its history, and it was in 2008 that it changed its name from the University of Missouri-Rolla. The schools home of Rolla, Missouri, is a small and safe city surrounded by the Ozarks. Outdoor lovers will find lots of opportunities for hiking, biking and canoeing. For a larger city, Saint Louis is about 100 miles away. Missouri ST has a 16 to 1  student / faculty ratio  and an average class size of 27. Lab sections average 17 students. On the athletic front, the Missouri ST Miners compete in the NCAA Division II Great Lakes Valley Conference. Enrollment (2016): Total Enrollment: 8,835  (6,906 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 77% Male / 23% Female90% Full-time Costs (2016  - 17): Tuition and Fees: $9,057  (in-state); $25,173 (out-of-state)Books: $836  (why so much?)Room and Board: $9,780Other Expenses: $2,372Total Cost: $22,045  (in-state); $38,161 (out-of-state) Missouri University of Science and Technology Financial Aid (2015  - 16): Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 96%Percentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 89%Loans: 57%Average Amount of AidGrants: $9,045Loans: $6,756 Academic Programs: Most Popular Majors:  Aerospace Engineering, Architectural Engineering, Biology, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering What major is right for you?  Sign up to take the free My Careers and Majors Quiz at Cappex. Retention and Graduation Rates: First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 83%4-Year Graduation Rate: 22%6-Year Graduation Rate: 64% Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Mens Sports:  Cross Country, Swimming, Football, Track and Field, BasketballWomens Sports:  Soccer, Softball, Volleyball, Basketball, Cross Country Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics If You Like Missouri University of Science and Technology, You May Also Like These Schools: Saint Louis University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphPurdue University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of Kansas: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphIowa State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphDrury University: Profile  University of Illinois - Urbana-Champaign: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphStanford University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphColorado School of Mines: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphTruman State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphKansas State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphWashington University in St. Louis: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph

Thursday, November 21, 2019

International Tourism Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words - 1

International Tourism Marketing - Essay Example This number represented a growth of 6.6 percent when compared to that of 2009. Receipts for international tourism grew by $919 billion in 2010, a number that corresponded to a rise in real terms of 4.7 percent (Corigliano and Baggio, 2004:301). Many countries around the world used to depend solely on other means of generating income. Introduction However, as time went by and economic analysts realized what tourism and its related businesses could do for a country’s growth, they initiated measures that aimed at encouraging intensive investment in tourism. In contrast to those other economic activities, tourism bases on competitive advantages and has the potent ability of creating additional income, growth, and job opportunities for many decades to come (Au, 2010:4). Estimates depict that international tourist arrivals will be more than 1.6 billion in 2020. International tourism suffered a setback due to the terrorist attacks that took place on September 11 that pushed the US ec onomy and indeed many others into recession. The September 11 terrorism attacks led to erosion of consumer confidence in travel (Akehurst, 2009:52). This traumatic blow delivered directly to the US tourism and leisure travel as well as domestic travel had no comparison even to the Kosovo or the Gulf War. As a result, the US economy took longer than projected as opposed to Germany and Britain (Fayal and Garrard, 2005:47). Given the tremendous results of international tourism as well as the possible challenges affecting its growth, this paper will seek to analyze the significance of social media in international tourism marketing. As of today, the behavior of consumers in tourism is different due to the hyperactive competition, digitization of the world economy, and the effects of globalization. This trend is becoming a multidimensional concept whereby people view it as an outcome of a dynamic system based on relations between the processes involved in motivation, attitude, effective manifestation, information, and perception (Corigliano and Baggio, 2004:302). With this respect, to research certain dimensions those are congruent to consumer behavior in international tourism in order to determine the consumption and purchasing pattern of the respective customers is essential. This helps in tailoring and catering for the customers’ needs and wants, which in turn translates to return or repeat business (Akehurst, 2009:53). As this essay depends highly on international tourism market and the diversity ascribing to this market, this sector requires bidders to put much focus niche marketing. Simultaneously, market segmentation becomes a subject with an attractive strategy, viability, and high as well as potential rates of profitability in this framework. The role of marketing research in international tourism market segmentation With the main objective of every company being to satisfy their customers, companies with a strong orientation pay special attention t o the behavior of consumers whereby they capitalize on the information that they obtain with the view of attracting new customers and retaining the existing ones (Corigliano and Baggio, 2004:303). In this context, it is agreeable that the complexity of international tourism marketing puts more emphasis on the importance for market segmentatio

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Miss Brill Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Miss Brill - Essay Example Female poverty and loneliness are two central ideas of Mansfield’s short story titled Miss Brill. Mansfield’s Symbolism Miss Brill by Katherine Mansfield is a literary realization of an incredible life drama. Portrayal of the main heroine is achieved through detailed description of the woman’s characters and inner workings of her mind in a very short, only four-page essay. Mansfield’s creative and fine work can be compared to that of a jeweler dealing with some precious stones and jewelry. Symbolism is skillfully placed within a simple plot of Miss Brill. Literary masterpiece of Katherine Mansfield really deserves acknowledgement and admiration. Even the title of the story points out a great literary genius in this great writer, Katherine Mansfield. A great attention to details as well as author’s originality is presented throughout work of Mansfield. Miss Brill is a spinster who has neither friends nor any other close people. Source of her earnings comes from working as an English tutor. Besides, she is engaged in reading press to an old disabled person whose ability to hear and understand is very doubtful. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that Miss Brill lives somewhere close to the seaside in France. From the very beginning the reader begins to comprehend the mood of the main character as well as the atmosphere of the whole story. The weather is intriguingly unstable since â€Å"the blue sky powdered with gold and great spots of light like white wine splashed over the Jardins Publiuqes† (Mansfield) point out on possible rain in the nearest time. So, Miss Brill is obviously ready to such conditions of weather as she takes out her fur which she calls â€Å"Dear little thing†. Soon, the reader associates fur coat with Miss Brill. Both of them are approximately of the same age. Depression – Psychological State of Mind of the Protagonist As the story unfolds, we find out that the old lady is happy to live and be active observer of someone else’s life. Thus, she is an active participant of daily life drama surrounding her. It is Mansfield’s style of writing as well as language used in this short story that makes the symbolic meaning strikingly distinctive. Everyday routine is covering all life of Miss Brill and she, as many woman of her age and status, cannot afford to see other attractive sides of life available to her. being an active life observer, the main heroine does not have time to live her own life actively. Being an elderly lady Miss Brill does not realize that her beauty has vanished away with her youth years. Speaking as an observer of other people of older age the protagonist does not even have a clue that she is describing people like herself (Morrow 82). One of the descriptions made by Miss Brill is very similar to those she makes on regular bases: ...they were nearly always the same Sunday after Sunday, and – Miss Brill had often noticed—there was something funny about nearly all of them. They were odd, silent, nearly all old, and from the way they stared they looked as though they'd just come from dark little rooms or even—even cupboards! (399) Misery of the humankind depicted in this short story is underlined with the help of Miss Brill’s image of her surrounding. Female characters in Miss Brill do not have

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women Essay Example for Free

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women Essay Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a condition which affects the sexual desire and performance of females. The loss of sexual desire, for men or woman, may not be a welcome experience. For some women loss of sexual desire can present serious problems and therefore it is important to advance understanding of the possible causes of HSDD in order to develop effective solutions and treatment options. Description of Female HSDD Corona et al (2005) identify sexual motivation, sexual desire and libido as terms representative of the desire to engage in sexual activities. The makeup of the body makes it possible for humans, once all is in proper working order, to respond to internal and external sexual stimuli by feeling the urge and/or seeking to engage in sexual activities. The processes at work in creating sexual desire are quite complex. According to Corona et al (2005) the way a person responds to sexual stimulus is usually affected by biological, emotional, cognitive, neurological and physiological factors. The loss of sexual desire can prove to be a very depressing condition. The Wall Street Journal, in an empirical study, highlighted the close correlation between sex and happiness, suggesting that an unsatisfying and unhealthy sex life contributes to decreased happiness (as cited in Warnock, 2005, p. 45). Among women there are a range of sexual disorders that may arise as a result of various biological, environment, individual or physiological factors. General sexual disorders in women are termed female sexual dysfunction (FSD), the most prominent of which is hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) female HSDD refers to the persistent or recurrent lack or absence of fantasies about or the desire to take part in sexual activities (as cited in Clayton et al, 2006, p. 116). This absence of sexual interest is considered a disorder when it proves to be problematic for the patient and their relationship or self concept. This clarification is extremely important since the mere absence of sexual desire is not considered dysfunctional if it is not perceived as such. Corona et al (2005) highlight, therefore, that â€Å"HSD is not always perceived as problematic† (p. 47). In fact some individuals may have little or no objection to the loss of sexual desire for any personal or ethical reason. On the other hand where continued sexual functioning is of considerable importance then the loss of sexual desire would pose serious issues. Another clarification that must be emphasized is that the condition must be recurrent and persistent, that is, it must be sustained over time, before it can be categorized as HSDD (Nappi, Wawra Schmitt, 2006, p. 320). It is only since the early 1980s that sexual disorders were given much attention and this may be as a result of the ethical issues that traditionally surrounded public discussions on sex and sexuality. It was only at this time that the American Psychiatric Association began including ‘inhibited sexual desire’ as a diagnostic category for disease (Corona et al, 2005). In females HSDD is usually demonstrated in a lack of arousal or problems with orgasm (Warnock, 2002, p. 747). Similarly it is not strange for HSDD to be presented along with or as a result of other sexual disorders. Clayton et al (2006) reports that about 40% of patients that develop HSDD also develop secondary sexual disorders such as arousal or orgasm disorders (p. 116). What becomes evident also is that the distress caused by the absence of sexual desire in women can be considerable and overwhelming and may result in the development of unrelated psychological conditions as a result of the distress that the condition may cause. According to Hurlbert et al (2005) women who present with HSDD tend to be more easily disposed to higher rates of psychological distress including depression, than other healthy females (p.25). Even though the presence of HSDD does not automatically presume depression, these women are at a greater risk. This is why proper and effective diagnosis and treatment should be provided promptly to sufficiently ease the condition to a satisfactory level. Prevalence Generally problems of sexual desire have been noted to be the most widespread sexual issues that clinicians have to deal with on a daily basis (Hurlbert et al, 2005, p. 16). Hurlbert et al (2005) points out that HSDD is the most prevalent sexual dysfunction that comes to the attention of physicians when dealing with couples (p.15). Estimates of the prevalence of HSDD are not very specific because of the very touchy nature of sexual dysfunction. Corona et al (2005) gives a rough estimate that the overall prevalence of HSDD in the general U. S. population for men is somewhere between 0% and 16% while for women this rate is between 1% and 46% (p. 48). It is quite evident that the disorder either affects considerably more women than men or that more women than men are willing to approach their physicians about sexual problems. Corona et al (2005) attempts to explain this variation by suggesting that sexual motivation is usually higher among men and therefore women are more likely to be at risk of developing HSDD. Whatever the factors that contribute to HSDD affecting women more unequally than men, it is important to consider the possible factors that may put a woman at risk of HSDD. Determining the causes or aggravators of HSDD is an important step in diagnosis and later treatment of the disorder.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

A Study on Effects of Different Levels of Aloe Vera Gel as an Alternati

According to the results obtained on feed intake in different periods, it can be seen that the Aloe vera groups have the highest level of feed intake compared to the control group and this leads to increased body weight gain in these groups in comparison to the control group. Olupona et al. (2010) reported increased feed intake in groups which were treated by Aloe vera gel solved in water (15, 20, 25, and 30 cm3/dm3) as body weight gain rose. Similarly, the present study shows increased feed intake in the 2-percent Aloe vera gel with raised level of body weight gain. Increased feed intake in Aloe vera groups can be attributed to changes in feed taste and stimulated appetite since, as reported by Windisch et al. (2008), phylogenic substances (as additives to birds’ feed) can improve taste of diet. Furthermore, Wenk (2002) argued that herbs can stimulate appetite and endogenous secretions which, in turn, improve grower performance. on the other hand, our experiments showed that Aloe vera groups consumed more feed compared to the antibiotic groups both in the grower period (days 25 to 42) and during the total experiment period (days 0 to 42). Guo et al. (2004) observed that food consumption level in chickens treated by Chinese herbs added to their diet was higher than this level in chickens fed by viriginiamycin mixed with their food. In general, increased body weight in different periods show larger body weight gains in the antibiotic groups compared to other groups. Among the experimental groups, the 2-percent Aloe vera group had better body weight gain compared to other Aloe vera groups and the control group, showing no significant difference from the antibiotic group. On the other hand, findings obtained in studies on treatment... ...nd viral infections (Sohn et al., 2000). Other researchers reported properties in herbal medicine which are similar to those of prebiotics (Verstegen and Schaafsma, 1999; Cummings and Macfarlane, 2002; Guo et al., 2004). By definition, prebiotics are dietary supplements in the form of nondigestible carbohydrate that favor the grower of desirable microflora in the large bowel (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Since the main polysaccharide contained in Aloe vera gel is acemannan, the enhanced body weight gain in groups treated by Aloe vera compared to the control group may be attributed to antibacterial properties of Aloe vera gel which can improve intestinal microflora. Furthermore, the acemannan contained in Aloe vera gel can stimulate immunosystem and improves body resistance against bacteria and viruses; and this, in turn, improves grower and body weight gain.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The aeration of the mixture of microorganisms

Water treatment is the removal of harmful pollutants in the water so that it can be used domestically and agriculturally. It is conducted through the use of chemical, biological and physical processes. Wastewater treatment enables the recycling of water so that it can be used for various uses. Main body Secondary water treatment method involves the removal of fine and dissolved wastes that are organic by the use of a biological process of treating water. The common approaches to biological water treatment process are the activated sludge and trickling filter.Activated sludge through the aeration of the mixture of microorganisms, which are also referred to as biological sludge, and wastewater. The microorganisms are subjected under an environment that facilitates their growth (Neary, 2009). The wastewater is continuously run into the aeration tank so that the provision of oxygen is enabled. Through the provision of oxygen, the microorganisms are in a position to break down the polluta nts that are organic. In the end, the activated sludge remains in the bottom.The sludge that is in excess is removed and put into disposal. The other approach is the trickling filters that uses a bed of stones, or the plastic material that is perforated. Oxygen is picked up by the waste water and gets sprayed through the filter so that it can pass through the micro organisms . The organic materials present in the waste water are fed on by the micro-organisms due to the high amounts of oxygen. These methods bring together aerobic micro –organisms, oxygen and organic matter.Biological oxidation takes place in the water treatment system, other than in the lake or in a stream when the organic wastes are discarded there. The tertiary water treatment has many processes that include; removal of nutrient, which include Nitrogen and Phosphorous, and toxic materials removal. Tertiary treatment process combines physical and chemical treatment; however, there are still biological treatme nts that remove Nitrogen and Phosphorous.Water is pumped through carbon filters that are activated. Charcoal is activated carbon that has been treated so that it can increase the chemical bonding potential. It is after this filtration that Nitrogen and Phosphorous are removed. However, the water has to pass through chemical treatment that is specialized in order to remove some chemical pollutants. An example of the pollutants is hexavalent chromium, which is toxic and can lead to cancer. Reclaimed water is water that has been treated .this water can be used for irrigation, generation of power, controlling dust, recharging of aquifer, cooling in some of the industrial process and restoration of the natural system. This water cannot be used for drinking, cooking, swimming and irrigating vegetables. This water is beneficial because its cost is low compared to the water used for drinking. Reclaimed water reduces the use of fertilizer because Phosphorous and Nitrogen remain (Neary, 2009) . To ensure that household reclaimed water is safely used, people should become extremely aware of the hazards that may result from reclaimed water.Upon known knowing the hazard, the people should adopt strategies that are in order to manage the prevailing hazards. Conclusion I would recommend tertiary water treatment because it removes pollutants such as hexavalant chromium that is harmful to the human health and the natural environment. Tertiary water treatment is the final treatment of water and hence it is the safest method. REFERENCE Neary, J. (2009). Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health. Culver City, CA: Earthprint

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Salvage Law: Stipulations And Amendments

Salvage law dictates the â€Å"service voluntarily rendered in relieving property from an impending peril at sea or other navigable waters by those under no legal obligation to do so. † Thus, under maritime law, salvage refers to the act of ‘rescuing’ or recovering certain objects in a deteriorating or perilous state at sea of people who have no legal responsibility (e. g. marines, navy). Salvage law also narrates the right of the salvor to proper compensation from the owner of said material property. This law inhibits embezzlement on the part of salvors and encourages attempts to save property. The basic stipulation of the law embodies the following areas: property, life, and treasure salvage. Basic premise of a salvage claim must fulfil the following criteria : 1. There must be a marine peril placing the property at risk of loss, destruction or deterioration. 2. The salvage service must be voluntarily rendered and not required by an existing duty or by special contract. 3. The salvage efforts must be successful, in whole or in part. Stress is given on the accomplishment of the attempt in order for monetary privileges to be given. With regard to the first requirement, the question lies on the state of a marine vessel or ship that exposes or threatens certain properties to loss or destruction. ‘The danger need not be imminent or actual; all that is necessary is a reasonable apprehension of danger. However, if the vessel has the situation under control, there is no peril. In order for salvage law to act upon its tenets, there must be a reasonable cause or status of danger on a maritime vessel as well as its property on board. If there is no threat of danger, materials contained from such cannot be considered as salvage. The degree of danger or peril is distinguished through the level of amount in salvage compensation but does not necessarily guarantee the right to compensation. As stated ‘The degree of peril, whether slight, moderate or sever, affects only the amount of the award, but not the entitlement of the salvor to a salvage award. In addition, maritime vessels that are driven aground, reefs, shoals, reefs, or any other impeding natural obstacle are considered to be in a state of danger. In such cases where vessels are exposed to natural forces such as gales, waves, or stormy weather, and places itself in a helpless situation that leads to further damage and threat of submersion, the principles of salvage rule applies. Second, the voluntary nature in the act of salvage is determined through an individual or party’s legal right to provide assistance. Professional salvors who mainly act of economic gain are not exempted from the rule; they are also considered as ‘volunteers’ in the part of regaining threatened property. Lastly, the third requirement falls under the ‘no cure, no pay’ under the principle of salvage rule wherein the act itself must be successful in order to fall under the requirements of proper compensation. A ‘no cure, no pay’ scenario a salvor may only be paid if the operation is successful whereas a contract salvaging necessarily pays the salvor at a fixed rate whether or not the rescue attempts may be successful or not. On liability, the salvor has the responsibility of performing the salvage effort with skill; any property damaged during the attempt will reduce the award amount. The salvor however, when the operation is unsuccessful, is not held responsible for the loss sustained by property owners otherwise caused by erratic or irresponsible behavior. Salvage law is based on the right of the salvor to proper compensation for the labor provided not to the title of property or loot during the operation itself. Salvage and Towage. The basic difference between the two principles lies on the degree of danger on the part of salvage situations whereas towage simply involves the ‘service that is based on the employment of one vessel to expedite the voyage of another when nothing more is required that the acceleration of her progress. ’ Towage involves the consideration for convenience where vessels only require assistance in completing its journey. Acts of towing vessels without the presence of danger does not fall under salvage rules; owners of said vessels are not entitled to pay the salvage compensation on the part of the volunteers. Again, the necessity for a salvage claim falls under the degree in which the property is in danger. The distinguishing fact between the two claims is that towage is the lack of danger. Contract Salvage Documents such as salvage contracts is a clear stipulation for the need of clarification on the terms of payment concerning owners and salvors as well as specific criterion in which the degree of safety of salvaged properties are agreed upon. These criterions may pertain to issues such as security, interest, legal fees, and arbitration, among others. However, the basic requirement for salvage contracts to work upon still lies on the success of the operation itself, otherwise the contract may be considered null and void unless working on a certain specification such as fixed rate that does not rely on the success of the operation. This specification falls under contractual salvage services wherein parties involved work for economic gain rather that acting on volunteer efforts. Another distinction is made if the assigned contract has fixed compensation applicably paid upon the success of the operation, it falls under a fixed ‘no cure, no pay’ contract. Difference is made between a ‘pure’ salvage operation wherein individuals or parties involved are considered volunteers in the strictest sense of the word where there is no contractual agreement between property owners and salvors. Contract salvage enables concerned parties to rescue property after disclosing an agreement regarding the safety of salvaged property and efforts which involve its recuperation will be compensated accordingly. Treasure and Property Salvage. As stipulated in the above requirements under salvage law, a salvor is entitled to compensation not the right to property of the salvaged materials. The right of ownership is immediately assumed to be still within the power of the owner. This rule also applies to properties that are abandoned by its owner and thus cannot be claimed as personal property of salvors. Salvage law must also be contrasted with the law of finds where the ancient principle ‘finders keepers’ applies. It is understood that abandoned properties in order for the law to be applicable, must have consent from the owner that expresses abandonment on the right of ownership to the property. If no consent is given, then the savage rule applies. The only probable dilemma in the rule of salvage and finds is on treasure and artifacts on ancient shipwrecks where no rules apply. Life Salvage Maritime law does not clearly specify any stipulation to salvage compensation or reward during operations concerning the involvement of people or ‘life salvage’. The distinction is made wherein there is no concept of ‘property’ in lieu with salvage law requirements. Any salvor who may save a human life does not declare any right of property to the person saved, the owner, or contents of cargo. However, the US Standby Act provides the responsibility to ship captains to ensure or render assistance to any person who is in danger at sea while maintaining safety and command over his/her own vessel. [A] master or person in charge of a vessel shall, so far as he can do so without serious danger to his own vessel, crew, or passengers, render assistance to every person who is found at sea in danger of being lost. ’ In cases where life and property are involved, there are certain circumstances in which the salvage award is increased with regard to the nature of the properties rescued as well as considering the lives saved. However, this stipulation is often negated with the notion of assistance or volunteerism on the part of the sal vors. Compensation. In determining compensation, The Blackwall provides six factors in which the nature of salvage award falls under: 1. The degree of danger from which the vessel was rescued. 2. The post-casualty value of the property being saved. 3. The risk incurred in saving the property from impending peril. 4. The promptitude, skill, and energy displayed in rendering the service and salving the property. 5. The value of the property employed by the salvors and the danger to which it was exposed. 6. The costs in terms of labor and materials expended by the salvors in rendering salvage service. In considering the compensation, the peril the vessel is placed upon must be taken into account as well as the danger(s) brought about by the situation that may lead to the behavior or actions of the salvors. In addition, salvors are not encouraged to increase time and effort with regard the operation in hopes of enhancing the reward in terms of willingly increasing the damage of a vessel. After enumerating the basic stipulations of the salvage law, we turn to the SCOPIC and the salvage convention in order to determine the differences of policy and/or rule with regard to maritime law. The LOF, SCOPIC, and Salvage Convention The following amendments on the nature of salvage law deals with the special and specific circumstances concerning the nature and amount of reward in terms of the nature, effort, and other requirements in contrast with the basic precepts of the law. Lloyd’s Open form of Salvage (LOF) is a standard legal document created by London-based insurance company Lloyd’s of London in lieu with maritime salvage operations wherein the company acts as an arbiter between owner and salvers concerning retrieval operations. The legal document is literally ‘open’ because it does not specify any amount of money for salvage operations in the beginning of any contractual agreement. The amount is later arbitrated by a representative of the company for the services rendered of the salvors within the degrees of distinction that are combined with the precepts of salvage and law and of the policies of the company.. The open form’s characteristics are enumerated as thus : the salvor enters to an agreement with the contract to utilize ‘best efforts’ to save the vessel along with cargo and to ensure its safe delivery to a prescribe place of safety; the services performed fall under the no ‘cure, no pay’ principle; the services prior to the signing of the contract is taken into consideration; the concerned parties may use vessel equipment free from charge from the salvor(s); the amount of the reward is determined by a committee at the company or an assigned arbitrator for the specific case; the method of arbitration is bound to London and English laws; and lastly, an appeal on the nature of the arbiter’s award to the committee. Thus, the nature of the LOF is legally concerned on a partial agreement between concerned parties which specifically takes the agreement into more formal terms wherein the salvors has the advantage of higher remuneration for services r endered compared to the normative conditions of Salvage law. This provision is intended for contractual or professional salvage operations determined by success. The agreement does not fall under special contractual services since the determinants in such agreements are dependent of fixed rates and whether or not the operation would be a success. In relation to the International Convention of Salvage of 1989 (herewith known as IMO) and the basic provisos of the Salvage law, amendments are made mainly concerning the identification of instances that enable salvers the right to attain special compensation which in essence still falls under the ‘no cure, no pay’ principle. Similar to the Salvage law and the LOF, the amendment in the IMO remain on the original position of the first law. The main difference lies on the formation of a requirement in order to attain special compensation on the part of the salvers within the additional terms external factors and material usage. In contrast with the ‘open’ monetary provision of LOF, the agreement between the owner and salvors are direct instead of relying on a third party neutral mediator. Chapter III of the IMO discusses the right of salvors in terms of the operations itself, notably the following sections. Aricle III, section 2 states: ‘Except as otherwise provided, no payment is due under this convention if the salvage operations have had no useful result. ’ Similarly, the provision still falls under the original stipulations of the Salvage law. However, specifications are made on the preceeding article and sections such as Article 14, Section 1 states: If the salvor has carried out salvage operations in respect of a vessel which by itself or its cargo threatened damage to the environment and has failed to earn a reward under Article 13 at least equivalent to the special compensation assessable in accordance with this article, he shall be entitled to the special compensation from the owner of that vessel equivalent to his expenses as herein defined. In contrast with The Blackwall criteria on the basis of the award system on salvage law practices, the IMO convention amends the aforementioned requirements as stated in Article 13: 1. The salved value of the vessel and other property. 2. The skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing damage to the environment. 3. The measure of success obtained by the salvor. 4. The nature and degree of danger. 5. The skill and efforts of the salvors in saving the vessel, other property, and life. 6. The time used and expenses and losses incurred by the salvors. 7. The risk of liability and other risks run by the salvors or their equipment. 8. The promptness of the services rendered. 9. The availability and use of vessels or other equipment intended for salvage operations. 10. The state of readiness and efficiency of the salvor’s equipment and the value thereof. The aforementioned amendments differ from the prior stipulations on the grounds of external or environmental factors and the specifications of compensation with regards to the nature of the operation itself. The amendments however still fall under the principle of the operation’s success in determining the right to the specified compensations. Article 14 provides that individuals may only receive special compensation, which include proper remuneration for expenses such as equipment used during the recovery operations, are not properly compensated by the salvage fee. The difference then is shown between the International Convention on Salvage law and the LOF. In contrast with the basic stipulations of the salvage law, the salvage amendments and the LOF stress on the importance of compensation and award through specifications of instances wherein concerned parties are properly paid with the addition of compensation for used equipment as presented in Article 14. Section two of the same article provides a mark increase and further specification on which the terms of agreement between owners and salvors may agree upon. If, in the circumstance set out in paragraph 1, the salvor by his salvage operations has prevented or minimized damage to the environment, the special compensation payable by the owner to salvor under paragraph 1 may be increased up to a maximum of 30% of the expenses incurred by the salvor. The prior amendment furthers the exact amount of compensation as opposed to the basic stipulations in The Blackwell provisions. Further, the SCOPIC clause aims for the endorsement of the 1989 amendments but subsequently present tariff in relation to provisions in the special compensation section. The clause also functions to supplement the LOF which includes the provisions in Article 14. The main premise of SCOPIC is: ‘the contractor shall have the option to invoke by written notice to the owners of the vessel the SCOPIC clause set our hereafter at any time of his choosing regardless of the circumstance and, in particular, regardless of whether or not there is a â€Å"threat of damage to the environment. ’ As a supplement, the clause acts as a special addition on the part of salvor in terms of remuneration that further adds benefits upon completion of the necessary requirements found on Article 13 in the IMO. In relation to the provisions set in the LOF, the SCOPIC clause may be invoked at any time by the contractor or the salvors whether or not it adheres to the stipulations made in Article 13, specifically the threats to environment regarding the operation itself. Differentially, the Special Casualty Representatives (SCRs) act as the same function as that of LOF mediators but are appointed by owners in order to determine that nature of the operation. In addition, any award mentioned in the ten amendments in the IMO is discounted by at least 25% of the amount on a basis that it exceeds the totality of Article 13 awards: In addition to the rates set out above and any out of pocket expenses, the Contractor shall be entitled to a standard bonus of 25% of those rates except that if the out of pocket expenses, the Contractor shall be entitled to a standard bonus of 25% of those rates except that if the out of pocket expenses described. Sharply contrasting the provisions set in article 13, the clause provides an alternative method in enabling to negotiate claims outside the LOF and the IMO with referral to the proposed tariff systems regarding vessel tugs, equipment, and manpower. In contrast, the LOF does not grant power over salvors to terminate a previously agreed LOF contract which obliges the salvage team to perform their responsibility in their best attempt. However, clause 9 of the SCOPIC states: The contractor shall be entitled to terminate the services under the SCOPIC clause and the main agreement by written notice to owners of the vessel if the total cost of his services to date and the services that will be need to fulfill his obligations hereunder to property will exceed the sum of: a. The value of property capable of being salved; and b. All sums to which he will be entitled as SCOPIC remuneration. The provision gives the equal right on the part of salvors to maintain the power of bargaining if and only if circumstances arise in relation to the aforementioned provision. Conclusion In summation, the nature of salvage law is highly dependent on the manner in which material or physical objects are retrieved in relation to the degree of danger the operation is carried out. The law is divided into contract, treasure, and property salvage. As such any act of salvage in the part of salvors is entitled to proper compensation coming from owners of said materials in danger. The nature of salvage is differentiated with towage in the sense that the former is situational; the process in which materials are retrieved must be in context with immediate danger or deteriorating physical conditions of vessels that also provide threat to cargo or passengers whereas the latter is concerned with assistance of an incapacitated sea vehicle in completing the journey without any threat on the physical well-being of the vessel. Salvors are necessarily implied as volunteers, in the altruistic sense of the word, where individuals who do not have legal responsibilities in undertaking recovery operations. However, salvage law also applies to legal operations unit such as the marines or the coast guard who are also applicable under proper compensation rights in exceeding the standard requirements of duty in the process of operations. Salvors may also be applied to professional and economical groups who provide their service under a fixed rate of compensation with also a contractual understanding that the award may be paid whether or not the operation is a success. The stipulations from the LOF agreement, IMO convention, and the SCOPIC clause mainly act as specifications of the tenets provided in the Salvage law wherein the LOF is a third-party bargaining agreement that takes into account the original provisions of the law and the amendments stipulated in the IMO (e. g. o cure, no pay principle) but does not specify the amount of remuneration on the part of the salvors with the understanding that the amount is negotiated upon by the owners and salvors with a mediator. This functions as a non-government independent body concerning the bargaining nature of the law. On the other hand, the IMO convention is the amendment of the principles stated in the original depositions of the salvage law such as the duty to provide assistance whenever necessary with the additional tenets concerning environmental factors, coastal states, elaboration of duties/party responsibilities and the special compensation system upon compliance of requirements. The IMO amendments also function as a specific response to contractual salvage operations in order to properly accord the reward system as well retaining the original In contrast with the original positions, the IMO amendments, specifically stated in Article 13, specifically adds that the environment must be taken into consideration in minimizing or preventing damage in order to qualify for the award. Equipment is also taken into the jurisdiction as the salvors have the responsibility to not increase liability that equipments might cause during the process of retrieval or upon the materials itself. In relation with contractual agreements, the amendments also cover the professional viewpoint of hired salvage service as it is necessary for promptness or strict compliance to procedures in order to be considered legal. The added provision leads to the creation of the special compensation section where salvors may be duly compensated with the equipment used during the operations if the fe e does not suitably fulfill the expenses. Lastly, the SCOPIC clause functions as an additional provision on the LOF agreement where added provisions are given in behalf of the salvors themselves which in this sense equally provide a sense of equal bargaining power with owners. The clause mainly calls for the power of salvors to terminate existing LOF contracts during circumstance wherein the contractors (salvors) anticipate that the service will exceed the value of the property retrived and the sums stipulated in SCOPIC remuneration. The basic LOF agreement necessarily state the inability of contractors to terminate their contracts as the owners have complete right over their services during salvage procedures. Salvors are necessarily obligated to act upon to the best of their ability to perform the operation to success in order to qualify for the award. However, the SCOPIC clause, with reference to the provisions set by the basic Salvage law, the LOF, and IMO provide an extension of power for contractors in terms of remuneration agreements wherein the procedure itself, if it exceeds certain requirements, duly grant the power of salvors to terminate the contract. In addition, the appointment of an SCR is important upon agreement of both parties and exercise of the SCOPIC clause. The SCR is then obligated to attend the operation itself with a number of representatives appointed by a committee. Thus, the salvage law and the aforementioned provisions discuss the general idea jurisdiction and nature of the law and amendments made to cover certain concerns. Bibliography Anderson, A, Salvage and Recreational Vessels: Modern Concepts and Misconceptions  U.S.F. Maritime Law Journal June 1993. International Convention on Salvage, 1989 International Maritime Organization (IMO),1997, retrieved 6 April 2009,    Lloyd’s Standard Form of Salvage Agreement (Approved and Published by the Council of Lloyd’s) 2000  § A-L, retrieved 6 April 2009, Mankabady, S, The International Maritime Organization, 2nd edn, Routledge, 1987 Schoenbaum T, Admiralty and Maritime Law, 2nd edn, West Group Publishing, USA, 1994. SCOPIC Clause 2007 p.1 Smith, N, The Law of Salvage, University of Puget Sound, 1994.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Stem Cell Controversy essays

Stem Cell Controversy essays The history of medicine was forever changed in November of 1998 by the discovery of stem cells. Throughout medical history humans have strived to understand the many functions of the human body. From the first operation ever performed, to the sequencing of the human genome, stem cell research is the next step in modern medical science. According to the Committee on Government Reform, there has been much opposition and controversy as to whether or not the government should fund stem cell research. This, in turn, has sparked a huge political debate that is still on going today. The fact of the matter is that stem cells are the key factor to new research and technology, and can lead to revolutionary developments in curing diseases that have been killing millions for decades (House of Reps 1-3). We can only hope that our government will take the step in medical technology and research in order to better the lives of Americans. Therefore, the federal government should allow federal money to be used for research on stem cells derived from excess frozen embryos and aborted fetuses. An article on the use of fetal stem cells explains that rats and cats have recently been used in experiments that have made it possible to transplant fetal tissue into damaged spinal cords in order to improve movement. Unfortunately, this treatment has not been widely tested on humans because a large number of fetuses are required to obtain enough tissue to treat even one patient, thus causing both practical and ethical problems (quoted in Mitchell). If given both time and government support, humans will ultimately be able to be treated as well. However, the federal law has prohibited the use of tax dollars to destroy human embryos (Robinson), thus putting the U.S. at a major technological disadvantage. During Bill Clintons administration rules were adopted allowing federally funded scientists to conduct experiments on open ...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

A Biography of American Spy Hercules Mulligan

A Biography of American Spy Hercules Mulligan Born in Ireland’s County Londonderry on September 25, 1740, Hercules Mulligan immigrated to the American colonies when he was just six years old. His parents, Hugh and Sarah, left their homeland in hopes of improving life for their family in the colonies; they settled in New York City and Hugh became the eventual owner of a successful accounting firm. Fast Facts: Hercules Mulligan Born:  September 25, 1740Died: March 4, 1825Lived in: Ireland, New YorkParents: Hugh Mulligan and Sarah MulliganEducation:  King’s College (Columbia University)Spouse:  Elizabeth SandersKnown for: Member of Sons of Liberty, associate of Alexander Hamilton, secret agent  who worked with the Culper Ring and twice saved General George Washingtons life. Hercules was a student at King’s College, now Columbia University, when another young man–one Alexander Hamilton, late of the Caribbean–came knocking on his door, and the two of them formed a friendship. This friendship would turn into political activity in just a few short years. Thinker, Tailor, Soldier,  Spy Hamilton lived with Mulligan for a period during his tenure as a student, and the two of them had many late-night political discussions. One of the earliest members of the Sons of Liberty, Mulligan is credited from swaying Hamilton away from his stance as a Tory and into a role as a patriot and one of America’s founding fathers. Hamilton, originally a supporter of British dominion over the thirteen colonies, soon came to the conclusion that the colonists should be able to rule themselves. Together, Hamilton and Mulligan joined the Sons of Liberty, a secret society of patriots that was formed to protect colonists’ rights. Following his graduation, Mulligan worked briefly as a clerk in Hugh’s accounting business, but soon branched out on his own as a tailor. According to a 2016 article on the CIA website, Mulligan: â€Å"†¦cater[ed] to the crà ¨me de la crà ¨me of New York society. He also catered to wealthy British businessmen and high-ranking British military officers. He employed several tailors but preferred to greet his customers himself, taking the customary measurements and building rapport among his clientele. His business thrived, and he established a solid reputation with the gentleman of the upper class and with the British officers.† Thanks to his close access to British officers,  Mulligan was able to accomplish two very important things in a very short time. First, in 1773, he married Miss Elizabeth Sanders at Trinity Church in New York. This should be unremarkable, but Mulligan’s bride was the niece of Admiral Charles Saunders, who had been a commander in the Royal Navy prior to his death; this  gave Mulligan access to some high-ranking individuals. In addition to his marriage, Mulligan’s role as a tailor allowed him to be present during numerous conversations between British officers; in general, a tailor was much like a servant, and considered invisible, so his clients had no qualms about speaking freely in front of him. Mulligan was also a smooth talker. When British officers and businessmen came to his shop, he flattered them regularly with words of admiration. He soon figured out how to gauge troop movements based upon pickup times; if multiple officers said they’d be back for a repaired uniform on the same day, Mulligan could figure out the dates of upcoming activities. Often, he sent his slave, Cato, to General George Washington’s camp in New Jersey with the information. In 1777, Mulligan’s friend Hamilton was working as aide-de-camp to Washington, and was intimately involved in intelligence operations. Hamilton realized that Mulligan was ideally placed to gather information; Mulligan agreed almost immediately to help the patriotic cause.   Saving General Washington   Mulligan is credited with saving George Washingtons life not once, but on two separate occasions.  The first time was in 1779, when he uncovered a plot to capture the general. Paul Martin of Fox News says, â€Å"Late one evening, a British officer called at Mulligans shop to purchase a watch coat. Curious about the late hour, Mulligan asked why the officer needed the coat so quickly. The man explained that he was leaving immediately on a mission, boasting that before another day, well have the rebel general in our hands.  As soon as the officer left, Mulligan dispatched his servant to advise General Washington. Washington had been planning to rendezvous with some of his officers, and apparently the British had learned the location of the meeting and intended to set a trap. Thanks to Mulligans alert, Washington changed his plans and avoided capture.† Two years later, in 1781, another plan was foiled with the help of Mulligan’s brother Hugh Jr., who ran a successful import-export company that did a significant amount of trade with the British army. When a large amount of provisions were ordered, Hugh asked a commissary officer why they were needed; the man revealed that several hundred troops were being sent to Connecticut to intercept and seize Washington. Hugh passed the information along to his brother, who then relayed it to the Continental Army, allowing Washington to change his plans and set his own trap for British forces.   In addition to these crucial bits of information, Mulligan spent the years of the American Revolution gathering details about troop movement, supply chains, and more; all of which he passed along to Washington’s intelligence staff. He worked in tandem with the Culper Ring, a network of six spies engaged directly by Washington’s spymaster, Benjamin Tallmadge. Effectively working as a subagent of the Culper Ring, Mulligan was one of several people who passed intelligence along to Tallmadge, and thus, directly into Washington’s hands. Mulligan and his slave, Cato, were not above suspicion. At one point, Cato was captured and beaten on his way back from Washington’s camp, and Mulligan himself was arrested several times. In particular, following the defection of Benedict Arnold to the British army, Mulligan and other members of the Culper ring had to put their covert activities on hold for a while. However, the British were never able to find hard evidence that any of the men were involved in espionage. After the Revolution Following the end of the war, Mulligan occasionally found himself in trouble with his neighbors; his role of cozying up to British officers had been incredibly convincing, and many people suspected he was in fact a Tory sympathizer. To reduce the risk of his being tarred and feathered, Washington himself came to Mulligan’s shop as a customer following an Evacuation Day parade, and ordered a complete civilian wardrobe to commemorate the end of his military service. Once Mulligan was able to hang up a sign reading â€Å"Clothier to General Washington,† the danger passed, and he prospered as one of New York’s most successful tailors. He and his wife had eight children together, and Mulligan worked until the age of 80. He died five years later, in 1825. Nothing is known of what became of Cato after the American Revolution. However, in 1785, Mulligan became one of the founding members of the New York Manumission Society. Along with Hamilton, John Jay, and several others, Mulligan worked to promote the manumission of slaves and abolition of the institution of slavery. Thanks to the popularity of the Broadway hit  Hamilton, Hercules Mulligans name has become far more recognizable than it was in the past. In the play, he was originally played by  Okieriete Onaodowan, an American actor born to Nigerian parents. Hercules Mulligan is buried in New Yorks Trinity Church cemetery, in the Sanders family tomb, not far from the graves of Alexander Hamilton, his wife Eliza Schuyler Hamilton, and many other notable names from the American Revolution. Sources â€Å"The Legend of Hercules Mulligan.†Ã‚  Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 7 July 2016, www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2016-featured-story-archive/the-legend-of-hercules-mulligan.html.Fox News, FOX News Network, www.foxnews.com/opinion/2012/07/04/this-july-4-let-thank-forgotten-revolutionary-war-hero.html.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Polymer Organic Light Emitting Diode Materials and Techniques Essay

Polymer Organic Light Emitting Diode Materials and Techniques - Essay Example In the continuously improving and modernizing technological world, one technological discovery is making an important path and giving important contribution in the field of optics. In general, the semi-conducting light-emitting diodes, also referred to as LED, had found vital applications in different technologies through the industrial and modern world. A light-emitting diode can be defined as a semi-conducting diode, which is a form of electronic device that can be considered to maximize the flow of electricity that is flowing through the material and restricting its flow in the other direction such that energy is built up and causes the material to emit light energy. LED can be considered as the general type of diodes that consequently emit light energy. There are different forms of LED (Zheludev 189). A LED can be considered comparatively of more use that other light technology is that it is considered safer on the basis that the main application uses light energy emitting material. This can be attributed to the fact that other forms of light technology through the use of the flow of electric current can be considered more advantageous, often referred to as electroluminescence, which is the basic principle used in LED. Compared to the light technology that uses incandescence, which a process of achieving visible light through electromagnetic radiation (Schubert 1). Due to the said advantage of the technology referred to as LED, the application of the said technology can be considered to continuously increase and improve. In fact the application in technology and other sciences can be considered as widespread. It can be perceived through the different light technologies that are classified as LEDs such as infrared, visible-spectrum, ultraviolet, and white LEDs made from III-V semiconductors. POLED Included in the main types of LEDs is the polymer organic light-emitting diode, referred to as the POLED. The study on POLED can be considered as one of the main area of interest in terms of the types of LEDs. This can be attributed to the fact that the materials used as a semiconductor are organic materials that can conventionally be described for insulation. The application of organic materials for electric purposes can be considered as a relatively new technology since it was only initiated in 1977. The historical discovery of effect of halogen on the electrical conductivity of a polymer paved the way for the continuously growing field of discipline that involves POLEDs (Fung, Lee and Lee 181). Objective of the Study The background information regarding POLED can be considered as one of the reasons that generated the study and attention to the said area in optics. In relation to the increasing assimilated knowledge on the POLED as well as the application and utilization, the study was conducted to be able to present a descriptive and comprehensive presentation of the development of the POLED technology. On the basis of the aim for the public to gain understanding on the application of LED technology, the theory of application is also one of the most important part of the research. Also, the evolution of the POLED tech

Friday, November 1, 2019

Women Fragmented Body As A Selling Tool Research Paper

Women Fragmented Body As A Selling Tool - Research Paper Example Advertising is a form of marketing communication where the elements or ingredients of communication is used to encourage, motivate, persuade and even manipulate an audience for causing some action, that is, causing sales and ensuring continuance of the action. 1 With the increasing competition and the emergence of newer entities in the market it has become extremely important to keep oneself into the glare of the public eye, the subject of the talk, constantly improve and renovate oneself and let people know about the same. This calls for the need of brilliant use of advertising and marketing skills. Advertisement in its basic form is conveying information about the existence of a particular product in the market or its availability, different features of the product, the listed price and its benefits to attract people to it. It is communication to cause sales of the product and even services. With the market becoming over crowded with products and service providers it is increasingly becoming important to get the attention of the public and maintain the same so that they do not lose their occupancy over the market. Not only that, it also aims to gain more market share and presence and increase it sales and become the unbeatable brand. 2 Advertisement is a marketing tool and, the main purpose of advertising is to grab the attention of people who are also the potential customers. 3 The thrust area of advertisements is to affect the audiences with the messages in the advertisements so that they are pursued to buy products or avail the advertised services. So, the advertisers use a number of attractive elements in the advertisements to get an instant share of the audience’s attention which later gets translated into pursuance for the sale of the product or services. 3 The robust development of technology has resulted television in every