Monday, January 27, 2020
A study on the various personality type tests It is only fairly recently that personality tests have become a common practice by companies looking to employ people. These personality tests enable organizations to match people to specific jobs and tasks. The tests also help to eliminate false information given in the interview. For example: A person being interviewed is asked how well they can work as part of a group. Naturally the person will say they like working as part of a group. A personality test will make it more difficult for the person to lie about things like that. History The basic principles or foundation of the modern personality type test can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. The ancient Greeks identified four personality traits known as the four temperaments or four humours. These four types are cheerful, sombre, enthusiastic, and calm. These four temperaments provided Carl Jung with the inspiration to develop his own physiological theory. Carl Jungs physiological theory provided the foundation for Myers Briggs and David Keirsey to build their assessment systems. These two systems are considered the modern day personality tests. Carl Jungs functional types Carl Jung categorised psychic energy into two types. The types are introverted and extroverted. These two categories are used extensively in the world today. They are two of the main types of personalities identified and used by the Myers Briggs personality test. Jung did not just leave it at this. He then went on to create four psychological types, these being: Thinking, Feeling, Sensation and Intuition. Jung also stated that things were either rational or irrational. Thinking and Feeling he considered to be rational. Sensation and Intuition he classified as irrational. Though his theories make sense the application of these theories for test purposes was difficult and tedious. Myers Briggs type indicator This type indicator is probably the most commonly used personality type test. It is based on Carl Jungs physiological theory. It is in the form of a questionnaire with the purpose of measuring psychological preferences with regard to how people make decisions and how they perceive the world around them (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Myers Briggs converts Carl Jungs theory into a methodology and system that can be used to understand and assess personalities. The Myers Briggs model can be used for: Gaining an understanding of and developing oneself To develop and understand other people Gain insight as to what motivates other people Assess other peoples strengths and weaknesses Developing and working in teams Agreeing on and allocation of tasks and responsibilities The Myers Briggs test is composed of four pairs of personality types. These types are: Extrovert vs. Introvert (EI), Sensing vs. Intuition (SN), Thinking vs. Feeling (TF), and Judgers vs. Perceivers (JP). Once an individual takes the test he/she will fall into one of sixteen possible personality groups. The sixteen personality groups are all the possible combinations of the four pairs of personality types. The sixteen personality groups fall into four distinct groups. These groups are: Internal Sensual Group, External Sensual Group, Internal Intuition Group, and External Intuition Group. This can be seen in the table below taken from Kersey.com (Keirsey Temperament Website). Internal Sensual Group External Sensual Group Internal Intuition Group External Intuition Group ISTJ ESTJ INTJ ENTJ ISFJ ESFJ INFJ ENFJ ISTP ESTP INTP ENTP ISFP ESFP INFP ENFP The advantage of this test is that if done honestly it can accurately reflect the individuals personality. This would enable managers to assemble a team of people with different personalities and each personality suited for the job required. The disadvantage is that this test may not necessarily be accurate as the individual could choose an option that they would most likely perform in their current state of mind. This could mean that the result could change if they were to take the test again under different circumstances. This would mean that their true personality would not be identified as the result is subject to the persons current mood and chain of thought. David Keirseys Personality Types Another personality type test is that of David Keirsey. Known as the Keirsey Temperament Sorter it helps people to better understand others as well as themselves. This test has been developed from the four temperaments and from Carl Jungs theories. Like the Myers Briggs test Keirsey categorises human personality into sixteen types and each type belongs to one of four categories. The four categories are: Artisans these are people who say what is and they do what will work. Guardians these people say what is and do what is right. Rationalists these are people who say what is possible and do what will work. Idealist these are people who will say what is possible and do what is right. Keirsey places the sixteen personality types into the four categories as seen in the table below taken from Keirsey.com (Keirsey Temperament Website). Artisan Guardian Rationalist Idealist Promoter (ESTP) Supervisor (ESTJ) Fieldmarshall (ENTJ) Teacher (ENFJ) Crafter (ISTP) Inspector (ISTJ) Mastermind (INTJ) Counsellor (INFJ) Performer (ESFP) Provider (ESFJ) Inventor (ENTP) Champion (ENFP) Composer (ISFP) Protector (ISFJ) Architect (INTP) Healer (INFP) Note: The letters in brackets are the equivalent Myers Briggs personality types. Like the Myers Briggs test Keirseys test is subject to the individuals frame of mind when taking the test and can only marginally determine the individuals temperament and personality. Another con is that if the person applying for the job knows the desired personality he/she can determine the outcome of the test. There are books on how to answer the test to achieve the desired personality for the job. Eysencks Personality Inventory Hans Eysenck brings a new dimension with the addition of emotional stability. Eysenck used two scales to measure personality, these being as follows: Introversion and Extroversion Stability and Instability With these two scales Eysenck created four types of personalities: Unstable introvert means that the person can be moody, anxious and unsociable Unstable extrovert this means that the person is aggressive, impulsive and changeable Stable introvert means that the person tends to be even-tempered, calm, reliable and controlled Stable extrovert this category means that the person is outgoing, lively, easy-going and is a good leader It is the dimensions of stable and unstable that sets Eysenck apart from systems of Myer Briggs and Keirsey. This helps to add a new view on the four temperaments. It also enhances the perspective of Jungs psychological types and adds to the Myers Briggs and Keirsey tests. Katherine Benzigers brain theory type Benziger has a different approach as compared to the likes of Myers Briggs and Keirsey. She places great importance on the fact that one should not try and falsify ones personality type. Benziger reckons that most people falsify their type so as to get the job for which they are applying. This could have an impact on their performance as they are not really the right people for the job. Like with the other tests she drew inspiration from Carl Jungs work. Her theory is that personality can be mapped in four quadrants of the brain: The Rear Left part is for processing and routines. The rear Right is associated with empathy and intuition. The Front Left part is associated with logic. The Front Right is associated with creativity and vision These quadrants can be linked to Jungs functional types. Benziger Jung Front Left Thinking Rear Right Feeling Rear Left Sensing Front Right Intuition The advantage of Benzigers test is that it places a strong emphasis on not falsifying personality type. There is even a section in the assessment that assesses the extent to which the person is falsifying their type. This can help in determining those who are honest and those who are not. This helps a manager select the best possible candidates for a position or a team. DISC This test determines four behavioural aspects by testing a persons preferences when it comes to word associations. The four dimensions of DISC are: Dominance Influence Steadiness Conscientiousness Dominance and Influence represent extrovert. Steadiness and Conscientiousness represent introvert. Some of the benefits of the DISC profile are: Being able to understand behavioural challenges and strengths in others as well as yourself. Gain an appreciation for the strengths and differences in others Identify tools to aid in conflict resolution Decrease conflict within the team and improve teamwork Gain an awareness of how to deal with diverse people Understand client behaviour resulting in increased sales Enhance customer satisfaction By identifying communication styles you can improve communication skills These benefits can help place the right people in management. Being able to motivate and understand people is a very good trait to have as a manager. The problem is that like most other assessments DISC is not one hundred percent accurate and therefore it does not display a reliable measurement. The Big 5 personality test This test measures your intensity to deal with change, people, work, and depression situations. The five factors are: Agreeableness or Accommodation this is how you deal with people. The higher the degree the more agreeable or courteous you are. The lower the degree the more unpleasant and aggressive you are. Openness to change the higher the degree the more open to sudden changes you are. A low degree means that you oppose change with vigour. Extroversion A high degree represents an extrovert while a low score represents an introvert Conscientiousness A high degree here means that you are focused and organized when it comes to work. On the other hand a low score means that you are lazy and dislike lots of work. Neuroticism This is your ability to handle depression. The higher the degree the more stability you have when pitted against depression. A low score means that you take a long time to recover from the shock caused by depression. This type of test is considered better than the Myers Briggs and DISC test. This is because this test does not focus on types or temperaments. Instead it tries to measure your ability to handle five factors. Conclusion There are many personality tests out there all of which can be used to gain insight into others and ourselves. Companies may use personality type tests to gain an idea as to how people think and then based on the outcome of the test build the best possible team. Managers can also use these tests to help them place the right people in the right position. Though these are great positives the downside is that the tests are not 100% accurate and some people know how to answer the test as to get the desired outcome. This means that you may get the wrong person for the job due to them being good liars.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Use of Satire in Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle Kurt Vonnegut said in The Vonnegut Statement (1973), in an interview with Robert Scholes, that one of his reasons for writing is "to poison minds with humanityÃ¢â¬ ¦to encourage them to make a better world" (107). This idea works quite well in Vonnegut's book, Cat's Cradle. It is a satirical story of a man's quest to write a book about the day the world ended (refering to the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima), which he never finishes. What we get is a raw look at humans trying desperately to find a sense of purpose in their lives through different means such as religion, science, etc. Vonnegut uses satire that is both dark and humorous to pursue this point. A good example is found in the prelude of the book where he writes, "Nothing in this book is true. 'Live by the foma [Harmless untruths] that make you brave and kind and healthy and happy.'" Bokonon, we learn, is a religion that is made up of "bittersweet lies" (12). "Truth was the enemy of the people, because the truth was so terrible, so Bokonon [the creator of the religion] made it his business to provide the people with better and better lies" (118). We also learn that science takes the opposite opinion. One of the men who helped develop the atomic bomb tells us, "The more truth we have to work with, the richer we become" (36). I think one thing that Vonnegut is trying to show us is that man too easily accepts things as valid without questioning. Refering to this, Newt, another character, says, "No wonder kids grow up crazy. A cat's cradle is nothing but a bunch of X's between somebody's hands, and little kids look and look and look at all those X'sÃ¢â¬ ¦No damn cat, and no damn cradle" (114). Cat's Cradle is full of these kinds of "poisons" not only about religion and science, but also about many other human frailties as well. In a way, Vonnegut is holding a mirror (that hides no imperfections) up to humanity in order that humanity might see its own the folly and futility and thus be impelled to try and improve. I think Vonnegut's hope is that this book will allow people to laugh at themselves while also making them think about how they are directing their own lives.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
1. ABSENTATION: As an introduction of the lead character, Brida came to the mountain in search for the Magus. There, she asked him to be his teacher. He then approved of it and made her sit down at the top of the mountain and leave her there to test whether she can overcome her fears. 2. INTERDICTION: Upon her search for the Magus, she traveled for over 90 miles, when she came to the village and asked the people, they warned her that the Magus had already tried to seduce one of the village girls. 3. VIOLATION of INTERDICTION: Though having been warned by the village people, Brida still continued on her journey to find Magus.She is eager to learn magic. 4. RECONNAISSANCE: She went in search for the Magus. 5. DELIVERY: Brida found out that he is a Teacher of the Tradition of the Sun, and that there are two traditions, the Tradition of the Sun and the Tradition of the Moon. When one masters a tradition, he/she shall teach the other tradition. And in order to learn, one must be completel y honest. 6. TRICKERY: It is BridaÃ¢â¬â¢s mind playing tricks on her, it is her mind that makes her imagine things, hindering her from going into the bridge and seeing the invisible world. Her mind is preventing her from completing the MagusÃ¢â¬â¢ first lesson. 7.COMPLICITY: Since Brida had courses in schools, she is having a hard time trying to let go. She limits herself to what she knew from school, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why she had a hard time doing her tasks. 8. VILLAINY or LACK: Brida is the protagonist and at the same time, antagonist of this story. When she went to Wicca, a Teacher of the Tradition of the Moon, what she learned in school about tarot cards was given confusion. WiccaÃ¢â¬â¢s ways was far different from what she was taught. When Wicca told her to spend an hour of her choosing to lay down the tarot cards and just let them show her what she needs to know at the moment, she was at irst, excited. But when she noticed that it was only her imagination working and not mag ic. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know now which to trust, WiccaÃ¢â¬â¢s words or the lessons in school. She was torn. 9. MEDIATION: Brida, now going against all her normal habits, decides to smoke cigarette before breakfast. She has given up with her tarot card reading. She felt crying after each time she does the reading. She felt vulnerable and alone and had a sense that a great opportunity is slipping through her fingers. She thinks she had failed. 10. BEGINNING COUNTER-ACTION: Brida phoned Wicca, telling her that she canÃ¢â¬â¢t come to her next appointment.She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that Wicca already know that. Wicca used the phone call to make Brida spread the Tarot cards. The Tarot cards revealed themselves to Brida. 11. DEPARTURE: Brida came to Wicca, to go into the bridge and see the invisible world. 12. FIRST FUNCTION OF THE DONOR: Wicca made her close her eyes, imagine things, made her enter a library in which she found a book. She then found out that in her past life, she was a so ldierÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Loni. And those voices have been with her since she was born. 13. HERO'S REACTION: Brida then forced herself to work, to avoid thinking, to avoid her thoughts about the Magus and Wicca, of her past life.She wanted to escape. 14. RECEIPT OF A MAGICAL AGENT: After her time travel into her past life, she now accepts that she may be or can be a witch, like what Wicca told her. She had accepted that the power is within her all along; she only had to let it out, to embrace it. Like what her past lives had done. 15. GUIDANCE: BridaÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend, Lerons, even if he really canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe what Brida was saying is possible; he still thinks it is true. He even compared BridaÃ¢â¬â¢s story with the composition of an atom, telling her that even scientists have encountered situations like such. 16.STRUGGLE: Brida was fighting her true calling, to be a witch. She has a fear of committing herself. Though her travel to her past life showed her who she really was and knew that it comes to her naturally, it also brought upon her the fear of committing herself to such beliefs. 17. BRANDING: Brida, is now wearing, though it was invisible, one of the Four Rings of Revelation, the Witch. 18. VICTORY: Brida now is able to walk into the bridge. She has resolved the tricks her mind played on her. She have been writing down all that Wicca taught her in the book of shadows. She also had found her Soulmate, the Magus. 19.LIQUIDATION: Magus showed her the way into the Two Traditions, the Tradition of the Sun and the Tradition of the Moon. He showed Brida how grateful he is that he found Brida and that Brida had recognized him as her Soulmate. They traveled through space and time. Brida saw meadows full of flowers, animals she had inly read in books, mysterious castles and cities that seemed to float on clouds of light. 20. RETURN: Brida didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know whether to feel disappointed or relieved, but they have to part. They just confessed their love for eac h other. It was hard to leave your soulmate once youÃ¢â¬â¢d found them. Brida went back to Dublin.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Although war comes with risk, leaders often find it inevitable when it comes to assuring the safety of their citizens. The Vietnam War was a significant movement in history that extended from 1965 Ã¢â¬â 1973 through the political years of Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon. The antiwar movement caused division within the administration as to the deciding factors of the United States involvement in Vietnam. Their decisions caused the most traumatizing event of the 20th Century. More than two decades ago the longest war ended, yet questions remain unanswered: what was the motivation of President Kennedy and his administration (Nolting, Lodge, Rusk and McNamara) to get involved in the Vietnam War, the role of Diem and the escalation ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In 1961, Kennedy sent 400 Green Beret soldiers to Saigon to teach South Vietnamese how to fight a war without help from American military troops. Kennedy insisted that it was Ã¢â¬Å"their war, to win or loose,Ã¢â¬ o bserving that the US favored Ã¢â¬Å"whatever helps the war effort.Ã¢â¬ Despite US efforts Vietnam was not totally successful against pro-Communist. By 1963, faced with a catastrophe, Ã¢â¬Å"Kennedy was convinced that he had to choose between his own destiny (and reelection) and the interests of Vietnam.Ã¢â¬ The US was forced to increase their military involvement from approximately 800 to 16,000 and provide additional resources and advisors, but they maintained their position to not intervene with troops. Kennedy had no intentions of abandoning the cause he felt was his hope for a second term. After meeting with his advisors and facing reality it was clear to the Kennedy Administration that Diem was incapable of running the government and it was time to take action. The course of action was to encourage a coup to overthrow President Diem. 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